Apologetic Research

  1. The word apologetics does not mean "to apologize," but to give a defense of what one believes is true.  Apologia translated by the English word "defense" is used eight times in the New Testament (including 1 Pet. 3:15).   - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell
  2. Critics of God say the existence of evil proves His imperfections.  “If God were all-powerful, He would stamp out all evil in the world.  If He were all-loving, He would rescue those who suffer as a result of evil deeds.  Either God is not all-powerful or He’s not all-loving. Either way, He is an imperfect God.  A righteous God and the existence of evil in His world do raise questions.  But the Bible Answers them:  evil is a manifestation of sin, and because “God is light and in Him is no darkness at all” (1 John 1:5).  He is not the cause of evil.  But God uses evil to demonstrate His power  and accomplish His purposes.……. With God, evil never has the upper hand.  If you are feeling the effects of an evil action, know that God is able to cause good to come from it.  The ultimate goal of all creation is God’s glory - and that includes the evil that temporarily lurks within it.  God is so powerful that He can direct any evil to a good end - St. Thomas Aquinas - From the book Turning Points with God, 365 Daily Devotions July 11 reading by David Jeremiah.
  3. According to 2 Timothy 3:16: "All Scripture is given by inspiration of God ..." It takes five English words, "given-by-inspiration-of-God," to render one Greek word which literally means "God-breathed." As the breath of a man is in each word he utters, so that words become the vehicles of his thought, so the breath of God is in the words of Scripture. Some 2,600 times the Old Testament writers claim that their words are the words of God; over 500 times the New Testament writers do the same. The Bible is God-breathed.
    Equally 
    remarkable is the economy of words used by the Holy Ghost in imparting God’s thoughts in human language. In classical Greek there are 97,921 words; in New Testament Greek there are only 5,857 words. Of all the words available to Him the Holy Spirit deliberately left unused 92,064 Greek words as unnecessary for His purpose. He ignored 94 percent of the Greek vocabulary. Yet with that small percentage of words He wrote down for us the sublimest stories, the grandest truths, the greatest concepts ever penned. Surely that is a wondrous thing about the Book of God. - From the John Phillips Commentary Series Psalm 119:18.
  4. We know from the Gospels and also from study of various Old Testament passages that many significant details of the Lord’s death were clearly prophesied and therefore fell out in strict conformity to the will of God. Pink writes, “Every important detail of the great Tragedy had been written down beforehand. The betrayal by a familiar friend (Ps. 41:9), the forsaking of the disciples through being offended at him (Ps. 31:11), the false accusation (Ps. 35:11), the silence before his judges (Isa. 53:7), the being proven guiltless (Isa. 53:9), the numbering of him with the transgressors (Isa. 53:12), the being crucified (Ps. 22:16), the mockery of the spectators (Ps. 109:25), the taunt of nondeliverance (Ps. 22:7, 8), the gambling for his garments (Ps. 22:18), the prayer for his enemies (Isa. 53:12), the being forsaken of God (Ps. 22:1), the thirsting (Ps. 69:21), the yielding of his spirit into the hands of the Father (Ps. 31:5), the bones not broken (Ps. 34:20), the burial in a rich man’s tomb (Isa. 53:9)—all plainly foretold centuries before they came to pass. What a convincing evidence of the divine inspiration of the Scriptures!” - From commentary on John 19:28 from the Boice Expositional Commentary Series (27 volumes) by James Montgomery Boice.
  5. One precaution when using apologetics:  God saves - apologetics does not.  On the other hand, God often uses apologetics, or evidences, to help clear away obstacles to faith that many people erect, and also to show that faith in Christ is reasonable.  - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page xxxi.
  6. An intelligent Christian ought to be able to point up the flaws in a non-Christian position and to present facts and arguments which tell in favor of the gospel.  - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page xxxii.
  7. Buddhism doesn’t believe in a personal God at all. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam believe in a God who holds people accountable for their beliefs and practices and whose attributes could not be all reduced to love.   - From the Kindle book - Read more at location 378  The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller 
  8. Some may question in the book of Matthew (4-18-22) the account that Jesus asked  Simon (called Peter), Andrew, James and John to follow Him and they just dropped their nets and livelihood and followed Him.  "Who would do that?  How did they even know who Jesus was or if anything about Him was worthy of that kind of dedication?"  However, it is in Luke 5:1-11 that we find a better explanation of why the disciples dropped their nets and followed Jesus. "The disciples didn’t just jump in with Jesus on a whim after all. Matthew was interested in describing how the disciples were called, but Luke was interested in providing a bit more detail. When the testimony of all the witnesses is considered in unison, we get the complete picture. The disciples heard Jesus preach and saw the miracle of the abundant catch of fish. This harvest of fish was so impressive and large that it broke their nets. Only after returning to the shore (and while James and John were mending their torn nets) did Jesus call them to follow Him. They left their lives as fishermen on the basis of the things Jesus taught and the miracle Jesus performed. - From Wallace, J. Warner (2013-01-01). Cold-Case Christianity: A Homicide Detective Investigates the Claims of the Gospels (Kindle Locations 3047-3048). David C. Cook. Kindle Edition. 
  9. A faith without some doubts is like a human body without any antibodies in it. People who blithely go through life too busy or indifferent to ask hard questions about why they believe as they do will find themselves defenseless against either the experience of tragedy or the probing questions of a smart skeptic. A person’s faith can collapse almost overnight if she has failed over the years to listen patiently to her own doubts, which should only be discarded after long reflection.  - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 207.
  10. An argument on Jesus being a liar by historian Phillip Schaff: "How in the name of logic, common sense, and experience, could an imposter—that is a deceitful, selfish, depraved man—have invented, and consistently maintained from the beginning to end, the purest and noblest character known in history with the most perfect air of truth and reality? How could he have conceived and carried out a plan of unparalleled beneficence, moral magnitude, and sublimity, and sacrificed his own life for it, in the face of the strongest prejudices of his people and age?" - From location 520 in the Kindle book More Than Just a Carpenter by Josh and Sean McDowell.
  11. What is religion then? It is a set of beliefs that explain what life is all about, who we are, and the most important things that human beings should spend their time doing. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism- Location 482 by Timothy Keller.
  12. Christians believe that all human beings are made in the image of God, capable of goodness and wisdom.  - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 534.
  13. God’s grace does not come to people who morally outperform others, but to those who admit their failure to perform and who acknowledge their need for a Savior. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 542.
  14. Why would such an exclusive belief system lead to behavior that was so open to others? It was because Christians had within their belief system the strongest possible resource for practicing sacrificial service, generosity, and peace-making. At the very heart of their view of reality was a man who died for his enemies, praying for their forgiveness. Reflection on this could only lead to a radically different way of dealing with those who were different from them. It meant they could not act in violence and oppression toward their opponents.  - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 560.
  15. According to Dawkins, “We do not need God in order to be good—or evil.”28 The New Atheists enthusiastically denounce religion as evil while praising science as good. But this raises an awkward dilemma for the atheist: if there is no God, where do moral obligations come from in the first place? If “there is nothing beyond the natural, physical world,”29 as Dawkins proclaims, then what does it mean to say that evil exists? Since moral values do not have physical properties such as height, width, and weight, how can we say they are real?  - By McDowell, Josh D.; Sean McDowell (2011-08-17). More Than a Carpenter (Kindle Locations 845-849). Tyndale House Publishers. Kindle Edition. 
  16. Therefore, though Christianity does not provide the reason for each experience of pain, it provides deep resources for actually facing suffering with hope and courage rather than bitterness and despair. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 651.
  17. The Son of God was not created but took part in creation and has lived throughout all eternity “in the bosom of the Father” (John 1:18)—that is, in a relationship of absolute intimacy and love. But at the end of his life he was cut off from the Father. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 670.
  18. We cannot fathom, however, what it would be like to lose not just spousal love or parental love that has lasted several years, but the infinite love of the Father that Jesus had from all eternity. Jesus’s sufferings would have been eternally unbearable. Christian theology has always recognized that Jesus bore, as the substitute in our place, the endless exclusion from God that the human race has merited. In the Garden of Gethsemane, even the beginning and foretaste of this experience began to put Jesus into a state of shock. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 676.
  19. It had been prophesied that the Messiah was to be born of a woman without benefit of a human father (Isa. 7:14; Gal. 4:4). This was completed. It had been foretold that he was to be the seed of Abraham and of the line of David (Gen. 22:18; 2 Sam. 7:12–13), that he should be born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2), and he was so born. Old Testament writers had spoken of his flight into Egypt and a subsequent return to his own land (Hosea 11:1; cf. Isa. 49:3, 6). It so happened. Christ’s appearance was to be preceded by that of one like Elijah (Mal. 3:1). John the Baptist filled this role. Christ’s miracles were foretold—that “the eyes of the blind” should be opened, “the ears of the deaf” unstopped, “the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing” (Isa. 35:5–6). Jesus performed all these miracles. His triumphal entry into Jerusalem had been foretold (Zech. 9:9). He was to be hated (Ps. 69:4) and rejected by his own people (Isa. 8:14). A friend would betray him (Ps. 41:9). He was to be numbered with the transgressors (Isa. 53:12), pierced through hands and feet (Ps. 22:16). Soldiers were to divide his garments and cast lots for his outer cloak (Ps. 22:18). All this had been completed. There was nothing of all that had been written of him that was left undone. - From commentary on John 19:30 from the Boice Expositional Commentary Series (27 volumes) by James Montgomery Boice.
  20. On the cross, Jesus’s cry of dereliction—“My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”—is a deeply relational statement. Lane writes: “The cry has a ruthless authenticity…Jesus did not die renouncing God. Even in the inferno of abandonment he did not surrender his faith in God but expressed his anguished prayer in a cry of affirmation, ‘My God, my God.’”9 Jesus still uses the language of intimacy—“my God”—even as he experiences infinite separation from the Father. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 681.
  21. Christianity alone among the world religions claims that God became uniquely and fully human in Jesus Christ and therefore knows firsthand despair, rejection, loneliness, poverty, bereavement, torture, and imprisonment. On the cross he went beyond even the worst human suffering and experienced cosmic rejection and pain that exceeds ours as infinitely as his knowledge and power exceeds ours. In his death, God suffers in love, identifying with the abandoned and godforsaken. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 687.
  22. Embracing the Christian doctrines of the incarnation and Cross brings profound consolation in the face of suffering. The doctrine of the resurrection can instill us with a powerful hope. It promises that we will get the life we most longed for, but it will be an infinitely more glorious world than if there had never been the need for bravery, endurance, sacrifice, or salvation. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 729.
  23. But we should not criticize churches when they maintain standards for membership in accord with their beliefs. Every community must do the same. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 823.
  24. Evil has traditionally been understood as the perversion of good. Just as crookedness implies a standard of straight, evil implies a standard of good. C. S. Lewis famously said that a bent stick only makes sense in light of the concept of straight. Similarly, there can only be evil if there is first good. But if there is no God (as the New Atheists proclaim), then what is good? Even the late atheist J. L. Mackie recognized that objective morals were unlikely to arise apart from an all-powerful God. - From McDowell, Josh D.; Sean McDowell (2011-08-17). More Than a Carpenter (Kindle Location 854). Tyndale House Publishers. Kindle Edition. 
  25. Contrary to popular opinion, then, Christianity is not a Western religion that destroys local cultures. Rather, Christianity has taken more culturally diverse forms than other faiths. It has deep layers of insight from the Hebrew, Greek, and European cultures, and over the next hundred years will be further shaped by Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Christianity may become the most truly “catholic vision of the world,” having opened its leadership over the centuries to people from every tongue, tribe, people and nation. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 893.
  26. In many areas of life, freedom is not so much the absence of restrictions as finding the right ones, the liberating restrictions. Those that fit with the reality of our nature and the world produce greater power and scope for our abilities and a deeper joy and fulfillment. Experimentation, risk, and making mistakes bring growth only if, over time, they show us our limits as well as our abilities. If we only grow intellectually, vocationally, and physically through judicious constraints—why would it not also be true for spiritual and moral growth? Instead of insisting on freedom to create spiritual reality, shouldn’t we be seeking to discover it and disciplining ourselves to live according to it? - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 914.
  27. Love, the Ultimate Freedom, Is More Constraining Than We Might Think. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism  by Timothy Keller - Location 927.
  28. Love is the most liberating freedom-loss of all. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism-  by Timothy Keller Location 930.
  29. All these revisionist histories completely ignore the growing body of careful scholarship that shows there were a very large number of eyewitnesses to Jesus’s life who lived on for years. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 1781.
  30. Wouldn’t it be tragic if we threw the Bible away over a belief that will soon look pretty weak or wrong? To stay away from Christianity because part of the Bible’s teaching is offensive to you assumes that if there is a God he wouldn’t have any views that upset you. Does that belief make sense? - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 1833.
  31. It is therefore important to consider the Bible’s core claims about who Jesus is and whether he rose from the dead before you reject it for its less central and more controversial teachings. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 1849.
  32. Today, Satan works against the regathering of Israel in the land which God has sworn to them.  The Arabs block them physically from possession of the land while theologically, every device is used to bury the truth in obscurity.  Some  hold that the Anglo-Saxon nations are the supposed lost tribes and that therefore there are no promises to the jews.  The millenarians take all the promises that belong to the Jews and apply them to the Church, leaving the curses, as Satan likes to do, for the Jews.  The cults of Jehovah’s Witnesses, the Seventh-day Adventists and others hold various theories that deprive Israel of her kingdom glories.  But just as the Lord has always fulfilled His promises and kept Satan short of his goal, so He will continue faithful to the end.  He will one day rule this earth through a redeemed Jewry. - From pages 106-107 of the book Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse.   
  33. How can atheism itself make sense of moral obligations in the first place? If there is no God, how do we ground good and evil? Atheism is silent on this issue. Thus, ironically, one of the most common objections to God ends up being one of the best reasons to believe in him.  - From McDowell, Josh D.; Sean McDowell (2011-08-17). More Than a Carpenter (Kindle Locations 866-867). Tyndale House Publishers. Kindle Edition. 
  34. If you don’t trust the Bible enough to let it challenge and correct your thinking, how could you ever have a personal relationship with God? In any truly personal relationship, the other person has to be able to contradict you.   - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 1853.
  35. So an authoritative Bible is not the enemy of a personal relationship with God. It is the precondition for it.  - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 1862.
  36. Christians, therefore, do not look upon Jesus as one more teacher or prophet, but as Savior of the world. These teachings make Christians far more like than unlike one another.   - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 1887.
  37. What is Christianity? For our purposes, I’ll define Christianity as the body of believers who assent to these great ecumenical creeds. They believe that the triune God created the world, that humanity has fallen into sin and evil, that God has returned to rescue us in Jesus Christ, that in his death and resurrection Jesus accomplished our salvation for us so we can be received by grace, that he established the church, his people, as the vehicle through which he continues his mission of rescue, reconciliation, and salvation, and that at the end of time Jesus will return to renew the heavens and the earth, removing all evil, injustice, sin, and death from the world.  - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 1889.
  38. Evolutionists say that if God makes sense to us, it is not because he is really there, it’s only because that belief helped us survive and so we are hardwired for it. However, if we can’t trust our belief-forming faculties to tell us the truth about God, why should we trust them to tell us the truth about anything, including evolutionary science? If our cognitive faculties only tell us what we need to survive, not what is true, why trust them about anything at all?  - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 2154.
  39. The fact is, says Leff, if there is no God, then all moral statements are arbitrary, all moral valuations are subjective and internal, and there can be no external moral standard by which a person’s feelings and values are judged.  - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 2386.
  40. Sin and evil are self-centeredness and pride that lead to oppression against others, but there are two forms of this.  One form is very bad and breaking all the rules, and the other form is being very good and keeping all the rules and becoming self-righteous.  There are two ways to be your own Savior and Lord.  The first is by saying, " I am going to live my life the way I want."  The second is described by Flannery O'Connor, who wrote about one of her characters, Hazel Motes, that "he knew the best way to avoid Jesus was to avoid sin."  If you are avoiding sin and living morally so that God will have to bless and save you, then ironically, you may be looking to Jesus as a teacher, model, and helper but you are avoiding him as a Savior.  You are trusting in your own goodness rather than in Jesus for your standing with God.  You are trying to save yourself by following Jesus.  That ironically is a rejection of the gospel of Jesus.  It is a Christianized form of religion.  It is possible to avoid Jesus as Savior as much by keeping all the Biblical rules as by breaking them.  Both religion (in which you build your identity on moral achievements) and irreligion (in which you build your identity on some other secular pursuit or relationship) are, ultimately, spiritually identical courses to take.  Both are "sin."  Self-salvation through good works may produce a great deal of moral behavior in your life, but inside you are filled with self-righteousness, cruelty, and bigotry, and you are miserable. You are always comparing yourself to other people, and you are never sure you are being good enough. - From the Kindle book   - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 2707.
  41. The devil, if anything, prefers Pharisees—men and women who try to save themselves. They are more unhappy than either mature Christians or irreligious people, and they do a lot more spiritual damage.  - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 2711.
  42. Despite all their legal righteousness, then, Pharisees have lives that are, if anything, more driven by the despair of sin. They build their sense of worth on their moral and spiritual performance, as a kind of résumé to present before God and the world. The moral and spiritual standards of all religions are very high, and Pharisees know deep down that they are not fully living up to those standards. They are not praying as often as they should. They are not loving and serving their neighbor as much as they should. They are not keeping their inner thoughts as pure as they should. The resulting internal anxiety, insecurity, and irritability will often be much greater than anything experienced by the irreligious.  - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 2718.
  43. Pharisaic religion doesn’t just damage the inner soul, it also creates social strife. Pharisees need to shore up their sense of righteousness, so they despise and attack all who don’t share their doctrinal beliefs and religious practices. Racism and cultural imperialism result. Churches that are filled with self-righteous, exclusive, insecure, angry, moralistic people are extremely unattractive. Their public pronouncements are often highly judgmental, while internally such churches experience many bitter conflicts, splits, and divisions. When one of their leaders has a moral lapse, the churches either rationalize it and denounce the leader’s critics, or else they scapegoat him. Millions of people raised in or near these kinds of churches reject Christianity at an early age or in college largely because of their experience. For the rest of their lives, then, they are inoculated against Christianity. If you are a person who has been disillusioned by such churches, anytime anyone recommends Christianity to you, you assume they are calling you to adopt “religion.” Pharisees and their unattractive lives leave many people confused about the real nature of Christianity.  - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 2728.
  44. In What’s So Great about Christianity, Dinesh D’Souza demonstrates that the New Atheists grossly exaggerate the crimes committed in the name of religion while rationalizing the vastly greater crimes committed in the name of atheism….. The key question is whether atheism, when it is adopted as the prevailing philosophy for a particular culture, is good or bad. When this question is the standard, it becomes clear that no other fundamental worldview has caused as much misery and bloodshed as atheism. Specifically, the number of people slaughtered by twentieth-century atheistic regimes, such as communist China, communist Russia, and Nazi Germany is more than one hundred million people.32 There is no close second place.  - From McDowell, Josh D.; Sean McDowell (2011-08-17). More Than a Carpenter (Kindle Locations 886-889). Tyndale House Publishers. Kindle Edition.  
  45. The Difference of Grace There is, then, a great gulf between the understanding that God accepts us because of our efforts and the understanding that God accepts us because of what Jesus has done. Religion operates on the principle “I obey—therefore I am accepted by God.” But the operating principle of the gospel is “I am accepted by God through what Christ has done—therefore I obey.” Two people living their lives on the basis of these two different principles may sit next to each other in the church pew. They both pray, give money generously, and are loyal and faithful to their family and church, trying to live decent lives. However, they do so out of two radically different motivations, in two radically different spiritual identities, and the result is two radically different kinds of lives. The primary difference is that of motivation. In religion, we try to obey the divine standards out of fear. We believe that if we don’t obey we are going to lose God’s blessing in this world and the next. In the gospel, the motivation is one of gratitude for the blessing we have already received because of Christ. While the moralist is forced into obedience, motivated by fear of rejection, a Christian rushes into obedience, motivated by a desire to please and resemble the one who gave his life for us. Another difference has to do with our identity and self-regard. In a religious framework, if you feel you are living up to your chosen religious standards, then you feel superior and disdainful toward those who are not following in the true path. This is true whether your religion is of a more liberal variety (in which case you will feel superior to bigots and narrow-minded people) or of a more conservative variety (in which case you will feel superior to the less moral and devout). If you are not living up to your chosen standards, then you will be filled with a loathing toward yourself. You will feel far more guilt than if you had stayed away from God and religion altogether.  - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 2737.
  46. Religion and the gospel also lead to divergent ways of handling troubles and suffering. Moralistic religion leads its participants to the conviction that if they live an upstanding life, then God (and others) owe them respect and favor. They believe they deserve a decent, happy life. If, however, life begins to go wrong, moralists will experience debilitating anger. Either they will be furious with God (or “the universe”) because they feel that since they live better than others, they should have a better life. Or else they will be deeply angry at themselves, unable to shake the feeling that they have not lived as they should or kept up to standards. The gospel, however, makes it possible for someone to escape the spiral of bitterness, self-recrimination, and despair when life goes wrong. They know that the basic premise of religion—that if you live a good life, things will go well for you—is wrong. Jesus was the most morally upright person who ever lived, yet he had a life filled with the experience of poverty, rejection, injustice, and even torture. - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 2771.
  47. The gospel makes it possible to have such a radically different life. Christians, however, often fail to make use of the resources of the gospel to live the lives they are capable of in Christ. It is critical for anyone reading this book to recognize this fundamental difference between the gospel and religion. Christianity’s basic message differs at root with the assumptions of traditional religion. The founders of every other major religion essentially came as teachers, not as saviors. They came to say: “Do this and you will find the divine.” But Jesus came essentially as a savior rather than a teacher (though he was that as well). Jesus says: “I am the divine come to you, to do what you could not do for yourselves.” The Christian message is that we are saved not by our record, but by Christ’s record. So Christianity is not religion or irreligion. It is something else altogether.  - The Reason for God:  Belief in an Age of Skepticism by Timothy Keller - Location 2818.
  48. The task or science of Christian apologetics is primarily concerned with providing an intellectual defense of the truth claims of the faith. The term apologetics comes from the Greek word apologia, which literally means "a reasoned statement or a verbal defense." - From the Kindle book - Defending Your Faith: An Introduction to Apologetics by R. C. Sproul
  49. We find a mandate in Scripture to defend the faith, a mandate that every Christian must take seriously. In 1 Peter 3:14b-16, the apostle writes, Have no fear of them [those who would harm you], nor be troubled, but in your hearts regard Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect, having a good conscience, so that, when you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame (emphasis added). - From location 48 of the Kindle book  - Defending Your Faith: An Introduction to Apologetics by by R. C. Sproul,
  50. Now, of course, this sort of relativistic attitude toward truth is antithetical to the Christian worldview. For as Christians we believe that all truth is God’s truth, that God has revealed to us the truth, both in His Word and in Him who said, “I am the Truth.” The Christian, therefore, can never look on the truth with apathy or disdain. Rather, he cherishes and treasures the truth as a reflection of God Himself. Nor does his commitment to truth make the Christian intolerant, as Bloom’s students erroneously inferred; on the contrary, the very concept of tolerance entails that one does not agree with that which one tolerates. The Christian is committed to both truth and tolerance, for he believes in Him who said not only, “I am the Truth,” but also, “Love your enemies.” - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 79.
  51. Malik emphasized that as Christians we face two tasks in our evan-gelism: saving the soul and saving the mind, that is to say, not only converting people spiritually, but converting them intellectually as well.  - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 131.
  52. First, recognize that doubt is never a purely intellectual problem. There is a spiritual dimension to the problem that must be recognized. Never lose sight of the fact that you are involved in a spiritual warfare and that there is an enemy of your soul who hates you intensely, whose goal is your destruction, and who will stop at nothing to destroy you. - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig.
  53. Paul reminds us that “our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms” (Eph. 6:12). Doubt is not just a matter of academic debate or disinterested intellectual discussion; it involves a battle for your very soul, and if Satan can use doubt to immobilize you or destroy you, then he will.   - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 458.
  54. It is unbiblical to think of doubt as a virtue; to the contrary, doubt is always portrayed in the Scriptures as something detrimental to spiritual life. Doubt never builds up; it always destroys. - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 464.
  55. They had confused thinking about their faith with doubting their faith. Thinking about your faith is, indeed, a virtue, for it helps you to better understand and defend your faith. But thinking about your faith is not equivalent to doubting your faith. - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 466.
  56. Those words hit me like a dash of cold water. For him they were merely a manner of speaking, but it was their literal sense that struck me. Playing the devil’s advocate. Think of it: to be Satan’s advocate in the classroom! That is something we must never allow ourselves to become. As Christian teachers, students, and laymen, we must never lose sight of the wider spiritual battle in which we are all involved and so must be extremely wary of what we say or write, lest we become the instruments of Satan in destroying someone else’s faith. We can challenge people to think more deeply and rigorously about their Christian faith without encouraging them to doubt their faith. - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 477.
  57. “Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour” (1 Pet. 5:8). Don’t be so naive as to think that the devil isn’t involved in the intellectual arena, too. We must be ever vigilant, as Paul says, “in order that Satan might not outwit us. For we are not unaware of his schemes” (2 Cor. 2:11). In particular, Paul warns us not to let anyone make a prey of us “through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ” (Col. 2:8).  - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 501.
  58. He begins with a reminder to his Christian readers: “But you have an anointing from the Holy One, and all of you know the truth. . . . As for you, the anointing you received from him remains in you, and you do not need anyone to teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about all things and as that anointing is real, not counterfeit—just as it has taught you, remain in him” (1 John 2:20, 27). Here the anointing of the Holy Spirit, which every Christian enjoys, is the source of our knowing the truth about our faith. John then goes on to contrast the confidence the Spirit of God brings with the assurance brought by human evidence: “For there are three that testify: the Spirit, the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement. We accept man’s testimony, but God’s testimony is greater because it is the testimony of God, which he has given about his Son. Anyone who believes in the Son of God has this testimony in his heart” (1 John 5:7-10a). The “water” here probably refers to Jesus’ baptism, and the “blood” to His crucifixion, those two events being the ones that marked the beginning and the end of His earthly ministry. “Man’s testimony” is the apostolic witness to the ministry of Jesus from His baptism to His crucifixion. Yet John declares that even though we quite rightly receive this testimony, still the inner testimony of the Holy Spirit is greater.  - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 508.
  59. Instead, reason’s role is that of a servant. Reason is a God-given instrument to help us better understand and defend our faith. Though the Holy Spirit gives us assurance of the basic truth of our faith, He does not impart knowledge of all its ramifications and ins and outs—for example, whether God is timeless or everlasting, how to reconcile providence and free will, or how to formulate the doctrine of the Trinity. Those are things we must decide by thinking about them.   - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 529.
  60. In the same way, given the witness of the Spirit in my life, giving me an immediate assurance of the truth of my faith, I needn’t be shaken when objections come along that I can’t answer. For I have a foundation for my faith that is deeper and more sure than the shifting sands of evidence and argument.  - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 559.
  61. The point is this: the secret to dealing with doubt in the Christian life is not to resolve all of one’s doubts, for that is probably impossible in a finite lifetime. One will always have unanswered questions. Rather, the secret is learning to live victoriously with one’s unanswered questions. By understanding the true foundation of our faith and by assigning to reason its proper role, we can prevent unanswered questions from turning into destructive doubts. In such a case, we shall not have answers to all our questions, but in a deeper sense that will not matter. For we shall know that our faith is true on the basis of the Spirit’s witness, and we can live confidently even while having questions we cannot answer. That is why it is so important to keep in mind the proper relationship between faith and reason.   - From the Kindle book - Hard Questions, Real Answers by William Lane Craig, location 561.
  62. Christianity is based on indisputable facts. Among the numerous the historical, knowable events was the resurrection of Jesus Christ, an event, Luke says, that was validated by Jesus himself through "many infallible proofs" over a forty day period before numerous eyewitnesses (Acts 1:3).   - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page xxx-xxxi.
  63. Eyewitnesses - The writers of the New Testament either wrote as eyewitnesses of the events they described or they recorded eyewitness first hand accounts of these events.   - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page xxxv.
  64. To put it at its most obvious, a person who denies God's existence, will not subscribe to belief in the Bible.  Some rule out the supernatural in the Bible.  They will not likely give credence to the book which teaches that Christ rose from the dead.  Still others hold that God cannot communicate His truth undistorted through sinful men; hence they regard the Bible as, at least in parts, no more than human.  A basic history for me is "a knowledge of the past based on testimony."  Some immediately say, "I don't agree."  Then I ask, "Do you believe Lincoln lived and was president of the United States?"  "Yes, " is their usual reply.  However, no one I've met has personally seen and observed Lincoln.  The only way one knows is by testimony - physical, verbal, and written.  - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page xxxix.
  65. Intolerance - The claim that "Loving Christians should accept other religious views.  Some say: "You Christians think your way is the only way and that all other views are wrong.  How intolerant can you be?  Why can't you accept other people and what they believe is true?"  The definition of new... tolerance is that every individual's belief's, lifestyle, and perception of truth claims are equal...Your beliefs and my beliefs are equal, and all truth is relative.  This misconception assumes tat truth is inclusive, that it gathers under its wings claims that oppose each other.  The fact, however, is that all truth is exclusive - at least to some degree - for it must exclude as false that which is not true.  If the claims of the Christian faith are true - and many people accept them as true - these people are no more intolerant for their belief than those people who accept Washington D.C. as the United States capital.  They are either correct or mistaken about how God revealed Himself in the world.  IF they are right, then there really is no other way to God but through Christ.  IF they are wrong, then Christianity is false.  The question of tolerance isn't the issue.  The question of truth is.  The misconception of intolerance assumes that a person should always keep his options open, even when the evidence narrows the options to one.  Why should we do this?  It seems clearly unreasonable.  Open-mindedness should not be confused with empty-mindedness.  One should never remain open to a second alternative when only one can be true.  It is the person who disbelieves in the face of strong evidence supporting Christianity who is really intolerant and closed-minded.   - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page xxxxl.
  66. Truth is not relative.  Truth is truth and is objective, not subjective.  Jesus left no doubt that He is man's only cure, his only hope for reconciliation with God.  Jesus said, "I am the way, the truth, and the life.  No one comes to the Father except through Me" (John 14:6)  When one evaluates the claims of Christianity a clear choice emerges.  Jesus Christ is either the answer for all people, at all times, and in all places, or He is the answer for no one, at no time, and in no place.  If Jesus is Lord and God, then this fact does not cease to be true simply because someone chooses not to believe it.  "We do not make statements true or false by affirming or denying them.  They have truth or falsity regardless of what we think, what opinions we hold, what judgements we make." - Mortimer Adler  - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page xliv.
  67. Zen Buddhists believe that by rigorous self-discipline and a strictly prescribed method of meditation they may attain satori, the Japanese term for enlightenment - whether suddenly, as some teach, or gradually, as others hold - by means of a perception which is empirical rather than intellectual.  Zen does not follow the routing of reasoning, and does not mind contradicting itself or being inconsistent.  Zen is decidedly not a system founded upon logic and analysis.  If anything it is the antipode to logic, by which I mean the dualistic mode of thinking.  As a result, Zen Buddhists and other mystics generally shun the use of logic. - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page xlvii.
  68. Atheism - An atheist is one who claims there is no God, which is a most difficult proposition to defend.  An atheist, to be consistently assured that his belief is accurate, must also claim to be omniscient, for there always exists the possibility of the existence of God outside his knowledge.  And considering the fact that most people would claim to posses only an infinitely small fraction of all the knowledge in the universe, the odds of God existing outside one's knowledge are extremely high.   - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page xlix.
  69. Agnosticism - Because of the difficulty of defending the atheist position, most irreligious people adopt the position of agnosticism (meaning no knowledge).  An agnostic person is not sure if there is a God.   - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page l.
  70. Support from the Scientific Community - Hugh Ross adds, "Astronomers have discovered that the characteristics of the universe, of our galaxy and of our solar system are so finely tuned to support life that the only reasonable explanation for this is the forethought of a personal, intelligent Creator whose involvement explains the finetunedness.  It requires power and purpose."  The impression of design is overwhelming. Stephen Hawking - "This means that the initial state of the universe must have been very carefully chosen indeed if the hot big bang model was correct right back to the beginning of time.  It would be very difficult to explain why the universe should have begun in just this way, except as the act of a God who intended to create beings like us."  In the early 1960s they recognized that only a certain kind of star with a planet just the right distance from the star would provide the necessary conditions for life.   Considering that the observable universe contains less than a trillion galaxies, each averaging a hundred billion stars, we can see that not even one planet would be expected, by natural processes alone, to posses the necessary conditions to sustain life.  No wonder Robert Rood and James Trefil, among others, have surmised that intelligent physical life exists only on earth.  Ross concludes: "Again we see that a personal, transcendent Creator must have designed the universe.  A personal, transcendent Creator must have designed planet Earth.  A personal, transcendent Creator must have designed life.  - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page l - lii.
  71. The Uniqueness of the Bible - The Bible is the only book that was:  - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page 4- 16.
    1. 1)  Written over about a fifteen-hundred year span.
    2. 2)  Written by more than 40 authors from every walk of life, including kings, military leaders, peasants, philosophers, fisherman, tax collectors, poets, musicians, statesmen, scholars, and shepherds.
    3. 3)  Written in different places (wilderness, dungeon, hillside, palace, prison walls, traveling and in exile).
    4. 4)  Written at different times (times of war and sacrifice, times of peace and prosperity).
    5. 5)  Written in different moods (heights of joy, depths of despair, times of certainty and conviction and days of confusion and doubt).
    6. 6)  Written on three continents (Asia, Africa and Europe).
    7. 7) Written in three languages (Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek).
    8. 8)  Written in a wide variety of literary styles.
    9. 9)  The Bible addresses hundreds of controversial subjects, subjects that create opposing opinions when mentioned or discussed.
    10. 10)  In spite of its diversity, the Bible presents a single unfolding story: God's redemption of human beings.
    11. 11)  Finally and more important, among all the people described in the Bible, the leading character throughout is the one, true, living God made known through Jesus Christ.
  72. The Old Testament provides the foundation for Christ. - From the book: The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict by Josh McDowell, page l - lii.
    1. The historical books show the preparation for Christ
    2. The poetical works aspire for Christ
    3. The prophecies display an expectation of Christ
  73. The Qur’an is a hopelessly flawed document full of faulty ethics and factual errors. In Sura 4:3, for example, Muhammad allegedly received a revelation from God allowing men to “marry women of your choice, two, three, or four.” And in Sura 33:50 he received a divine sanction to marry “any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed her.” While other men were permitted to marry up to only four wives, Allah provided Muhammad with a divine exception for his marriage to at least twelve women—including Aishah, whom he married at the tender age of eleven.4 Also troubling is the fact that the Qur’an allows men to “beat” their wives in order that the women might “return to obedience” (Sura 4:34). - By Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 147-152). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. .
  74. The Qur’anic denial of Christ’s crucifixion - The denial is explicit and emphatic: “They killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them” (4:157). As will be established, truth points in the opposite direction. The fatal suffering of Jesus Christ as recounted in the New Testament is one of the most well-established realities of ancient history. In today’s modern age of scientific enlightenment, there is virtual consensus among credible scholars, both conservative and liberal, that Jesus did in fact die on a Roman cross. - By Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 153-157). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  75. The Book of Mormon - While Mormons claim that their prophet, Joseph Smith, found golden plates containing the “fullness of the everlasting gospel” written in “reformed Egyptian hieroglyphics,” the facts say otherwise. Not only is there no archaeological evidence for a language such as “reformed Egyptian hieroglyphics”; there is no archaeological support for lands such as the “land of Moron” (Ether 7). Nor is there any archaeological evidence to buttress the notion that the Jaredites, Nephites, and Lamanites migrated from Israel to the Americas. On the contrary, both archaeology and anthropology demonstrate conclusively that the people, places, and particulars chronicled in the Book of Mormon are little more than the products of a fertile and faulty imagination. - By Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 158-164). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  76. President Barack Obama in his “Call to Renewal” keynote address to religious leaders, he asked, “Which passages of Scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is okay and that eating shellfish is an abomination? Or we could go with Deuteronomy, which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith.”7 While I applaud the president’s injection of religious dialogue into public policy debates, the manner in which he mischaracterizes and marginalizes Scripture is appalling. Nowhere does the Bible suggest that slavery is okay. Nor does the Bible suggest stoning your child should he stray from the faith. While I will address such mischaracterizations within this volume, it is worth noting now that Obama’s words are eerily similar to those voiced by President Bartlet in the once wildly popular television series The West Wing.8 Not only so, but his sentiments are comparable to those of a new breed of anti-theists who make similar charges, albeit in far more strident and expanded fashion. - By Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 165-171). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  77. My contention here is that how you view your origins will ultimately determine how you live your life. If you believe you are a function of random mutations, you will live your life by a different standard than if you know you are created in the image of God and thus accountable to him. - By Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 233-235). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition..
  78. The tooth of time gnaws all books but the Bible . . . Nineteen centuries of experience have tested it. It has passed through critical fires no other volume has suffered, and its spiritual truths have endured the flames and come out without so much as the smell of burning. —W. E. SANGSTER - By Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 283-286). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  79. The contention that the Bible is human as opposed to divine in origin— the product of contaminated copies, cleverly invented stories, and corrupt collaborators—is nothing new. It has been the stock and trade of bastions of higher learning for centuries. Not so today. What was once the province of private academia is now being popularized in the public arena. While hundreds of examples are available, one stands out above the rest. It involves the spiritual terrorism of Bart Ehrman, distinguished professor of religious studies at the prestigious University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who appears peculiarly proud of causing the faith of many of his students to waver. “Some students,” says Ehrman, “resist for a long time, secure in their knowledge that God would not allow any falsehoods into his sacred book. But before long, as students see more and more of the evidence, many of them find that their faith in the inerrancy and absolute historical truthfulness of the Bible begins to waver.” - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 300-308). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  80. The problem with Bart Ehrman’s misinterpretation is that, like fellow fundamentalists (here Bill Maher comes to mind), he attempts to make the language of Scripture “walk on all fours.” The kingdom of God is obviously not like a mustard seed in every way. A kingdom does not look like a mustard seed, nor is a mustard seed the smallest seed in the kingdom. Rather the kingdom of God is like a mustard seed in the sense that it begins small and becomes large. Jesus’ parable was not intended to provide a lesson on plant development and growth. Nor did Jesus mistakenly think that a black mustard seed was smaller than an orchid seed. Instead he was using the smallest of seeds familiar to Palestinian farmers to illustrate that, while the kingdom of God began in obscurity, in the end it would fill the earth and “endure forever” (Daniel 2:35, 44). - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 353-359). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  81. Bart Ehrman has set up a rigged game in which it is impossible to lose. Since Matthew and Mark do not provide identical testimonies, he cries, “Contradiction!” Conversely, if they had, he could conveniently charge them with collusion. In sharp contrast, credible scholarship always seeks a reliable core set of facts in order to validate an historical account. Far from seeking word-for-word uniformity, they expect the biblical authors to provide complementary perspectives. Divine inspiration never supposes biblical authors are automatons devoid of personality or individual style but rather men who “spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit” (2 Peter 1:21). - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 367-370). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  82. These carefully copied Hebrew texts have remained virtually unchanged since about 600 to 700 AD. In 1947 the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls yielded copies from all the major sections of the Old Testament, except Ruth, dating back more than a century before Christ. When compared to these ancient copies, the Masoretic texts were found to be virtually identical.2 The point here should not be missed. The Dead Sea Scrolls predated the earliest extant text—Masoretic—by more than a millennium.3 Yet when compared to one another, differences in style and spelling were noted but no significant difference in substance. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 430-435). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  83. The Great Isaiah Scroll (c. 100 BC), discovered in the first of the Qumran caves, is an apt illustration. When compared to the text of the Masorites (c. AD 1000), it was found to be virtually identical—despite the passage of eleven hundred years. The famous fifty-third chapter contained only seventeen variants from the Masoretic text. Ten were a matter of spelling, four a matter of style, and three accounted for by the Hebrew letters in the word light. None substantially alters the meaning of the text. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 435-439). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  84. Old Testament scribal luminaries ranging from Ezra to the Masorites set an unimaginable standard of excellence in their copyist practices— a standard that should provide us with complete confidence in the Old Testament canon. Says Barker, “Bible students of today can be confident that the text available to us is not significantly different from the texts which Jesus and his disciples read twenty centuries ago.” - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 448-451). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  85. As is obvious to any unbiased person from scholar to schoolchild, the New Testament is anything but anti-Semitic. Jesus, the twelve apostles, and the apostle Paul were all Jewish! In fact, Christians proudly refer to their heritage as the Judeo-Christian tradition. In the book of Hebrews, Christians are reminded of Jews from David to Daniel who are members of the faith hall of fame. Indeed, Christian children grow up with Jews as their heroes! From their mothers’ knees to Sunday school classes, they are treated to Old Testament stories of great Jewish men and women of faith from Moses to Mary and from Ezekiel to Esther.  - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Location 505). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  86. While biblical authors and their copyists were clearly not anti-Semitic, they were, as previously acknowledged, far from perfect. Thus Bart Ehrman’s contention that “there are more differences among our manuscripts than there are words in the New Testament” is factually defensible. The notion that these copyist changes “dramatically affected” everything from the “divinity of Jesus” to the “divine origins of the Bible” is not.18 While such assertions make for great rhetoric, they are clearly ridiculous. Most copyist variants are mere matters of spelling and style and as such are easily discernable. Where the text was altered by copyists, no essential teaching of the faith was compromised. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 516-521). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  87. It is mind-boggling to realize that Christianity can confidently point to a creed that some of the greatest scholars, theologians, philosophers, and historians have traced to within just three to eight years of Christ’s crucifixion.20 Peter, Paul, and the rest of the apostles claimed that Christ appeared to hundreds of people who were still alive and available for cross-examination (15:6).21 Paul claims that Christ “appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep” (15:6). It would have been one thing to attribute such oral history to people who had already died. It was quite another to attribute it to multitudes who were still alive. As the New Testament scholar of Cambridge University C. H. Dodd points out, “There can hardly be any purpose in mentioning the fact that most of the 500 are still alive, unless Paul is saying, in effect, ‘The witnesses are there to be questioned.’” - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 645-653). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  88. As with the Old, the New Testament is replete with eyewitness testimony. Luke says that he gathered eyewitness testimony and “carefully investigated everything” (Luke 1:1–4). Once bent on disproving the historical reliability of Dr. Luke, acclaimed archaeologist Sir William Ramsay was thoroughly converted as one after the other the historical allusions in Luke’s writings proved accurate. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 819-822). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  89. John’s gospel provides ample internal evidence that it was written by an author who was intimately acquainted with locations and events he recorded, not someone writing under an alias hundreds of years later. As such, he references a Pool of Bethesda surrounded by five covered colonnades (John 5:2) as well as a Pool of Siloam used by those who were infirm (John 9:7). Archaeology has verified the descriptions and locations of both of these pools.4 John also correctly notes changes in elevation between Cana in Galilee, Capernaum, and Jerusalem (John 2:11–13). - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 824-828). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  90. If internal evidence points to anything, it is to the reality that far from inventors of internally inconsistent stories, such gospel writers were inspired to faithfully narrate a core set of facts by which they had been radically transformed. While it is conceivable that they would have faced torture, vilification, and even cruel deaths for what they fervently believed to be true, it is inconceivable that they would have been willing to die for cleverly invented stories they knew to be lies. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 834-835). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  91. Internal evidence is sufficient to establish the biblical manuscripts as authentic, reliable, and complementary. External evidence, however, provides remarkable corroborating attestation. From early external evidence provided by credible historians such as the Jewish Josephus and the Roman Tacitus, Suetonius, and Plinius, it is possible to piece together highlights of Christ and New Testament Christianity wholly apart from the internal evidence itself. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 1223-1227). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  92. Despite false testimony to the contrary, the evidence overwhelmingly turns in favor of the biblical text. If John had stipulated that Mary Magdalene was the only female to discover the empty tomb while the other gospels claimed that more than one woman was involved, we would be faced with an obvious contradiction. Instead, the complementary details provided by the four gospel writers simply serve to flesh out the rest of the story. As such, credible scholars look for a reliable core in order to validate historical accounts. In this case, liberal and conservative scholars alike agree that the body of Jesus was buried in the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea. (As a member of the Jewish court that convicted Jesus, Joseph is unlikely to be Christian fiction.)12 Additionally, as philosopher and apologist William Lane Craig points out, “when you understand the role of women in first-century Jewish society, what’s really extraordinary is that this empty tomb story should feature women as the discoverers of the empty tomb in the first place.” And Craig concludes, “The fact that women are the first witnesses to the empty tomb is most plausibly explained by the reality that—like it or not—they were the discoverers of the empty tomb! This shows that the gospel writers faithfully recorded what happened, even if it was embarrassing. This bespeaks the historicity of this tradition rather than its legendary status.”13 If each of the gospel writers presented secondary details in exactly the same manner, critics might well dismiss their accounts on the basis of collusion. Instead, the Gospels provide unique yet mutually consistent testimonies that are internally consistent one with the other. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 882-894). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  93. We should carefully note the elegant tapestry that serves as an internal evidence for the divine authorship of the biblical text. The tapestry of Scripture is a divine composite of surpassing brilliance and beauty. It is simply incredible that this exquisite masterpiece is fashioned from sixty-six books, written by forty different human authors in three different languages (Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek), over a period of fifteen hundred years, on thousands of different subjects, and yet is unified and consistent throughout. How is that possible? The individual writers had no idea that their message would eventually be assembled into one Book, yet each work fits perfectly into place with a unique purpose as a synergistic component of an elegant masterpiece. The synergistic harmony of the Bible is a powerful testimony and an enduring reminder that God has spoken—that these are his very words. Clearly, the elegant tapestry of the text added to the eyewitness testimony of its authors is surpassingly powerful internal evidence to its absolute and irrevocable trustworthiness. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 930-934). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  94. From early external evidences provided by credible historians—such as the Jewish Josephus and the Romans Tacitus, Suetonius, and Plinius—it is possible to piece together highlights of Christ and Christianity wholly apart from the internal evidences themselves. The contrast between such credible first-century external evidences and later, less-credible sources could not be starker. Tacitus is rightly regarded as the greatest first-century historian of the ancient Roman Empire, while the Talmud rarely mentions historical details surrounding second temple Judaism and, where it does, consistently muddles them. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 1059-1063). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  95. It is simply incredible to think that Tacitus, widely considered to be the greatest first-century historian of the ancient Roman Empire, would provide credible external evidence for the biblical account of Christ’s crucifixion at the hands of the Roman governor Pontius Pilate. Or that the Jewish Josephus, writing to please the Romans, would provide ancient authoritative attestation to the authenticity of the sacred text. But such is precisely the case. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 1064-1067). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  96. In the end, we can be deeply grateful for the practices of copyists who fulfilled their task with meticulous zeal and reverential awe; for an oral culture in which saints disciplined and dedicated themselves to recall the sayings of understanding, and in which sages were predisposed to present their sayings in inherently memorable fashion; for the sheer volume of papyri and parchments dwarfing those of any other work in classical history; for the eyewitness testimony of those willing to shed their blood for the great truths they communicated; for the elegant tapestry that serves as enduring internal evidence for the divine authorship of the biblical text; for ancient authoritative external evidences that testify to the authenticity of the Bible; and for the science of textual criticism by which the autographs emerge from the mountain of manuscript evidence. Like a Rock of Gibraltar embedded in a sea of manuscript copies, the Bible is yet and forever will be an immovable bulwark fueling our faith and shattering the waves of skepticism and doubt. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 1187-1195). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  97. No archaeological evidence for a language such as “reformed Egyptian” hieroglyphics.6 No archaeological evidence for the great civilizations chronicled in the Book of Mormon. No archaeological evidence for such lands as the “land of Moron” described in Ether 7:6. No anthropological evidence that the Nephites and Lamanites migrated from Jerusalem to Mesoamerica. Indeed, both archaeology and anthropology militate against the people, places, and particulars that are part and parcel of the Book of Mormon and demonstrate conclusively that the book is little more than the product of a fertile and enterprising imagination. - Hanegraaff, Hank (2011-08-30). Has God Spoken?: Proof of the Bible?s Divine Inspiration (Kindle Locations 1266-1270). Thomas Nelson. Kindle Edition. 
  98. It is Finished (John 19:30) - What was finished was the atonement by which the righteous demands of God for sin’s punishment had been fully satisfied and the righteousness of God was now able to be freely offered to all who would believe on Jesus. 
    This is an aspect of the atonement that has always figured prominently in Protestant presentations of the meaning of the death of Christ. The Roman Catholic Church (and many unsound Protestant churches, too) maintains that the death of Christ does not relieve the believer from making satisfaction for sins which he or she has committed. More precisely, it distinguishes between sins committed before and after baptism, and between temporal and eternal punishment for those sins. So far as sins committed before baptism are concerned, both the temporal and eternal punishments are blotted out through the application of Christ’s death to the individual through baptism. So far as sins committed after baptism are concerned, eternal punishment is blotted out. But the temporal punishments require the making of satisfaction by the individual himself either in this life (through a faithful use of the sacraments and by living a meritorious life) or else in purgatory. Although this system of salvation allows the greater part of the work to be God’s and even acknowledges that the faith and merit of the believer are attained by the prevenient grace of God, it nevertheless requires the believer to contribute to his own salvation in some measure. More must be added. The importance of the Mass, in which the sacrifice of Christ is constantly reenacted, is evidence of this outlook.  But this is not right. Consequently, Protestant thought has always contended rightly that “the satisfaction of Christ is the only satisfaction for sin and is so perfect and final that it leaves no penal liability for any sin of the believer.” 
    - Excerpt from section “It is Finsihed” Psalm 22:30 from Boice Expositional Commentary Series (Psalms (3 volume set).
  99. Link to Article on the Ten Commandments of Apologetics by Dan Story:
    http://www.equip.org/PDF/JAF3371.pdf

  100. - From location 4628 in the Kindle version of Cold-Case Christianity: A Homocide Detective Investigates the Claims of Christianity by J. Warner Wallace.