Creation

  1. I love nature as to me everything was created by God and therefore has intelligent design and its beauty strikes me as fascinating.  I have for many years enjoyed watching shows on television on stations such as the Discovery Channel, National Geographic, Animal Planet, The Learning Channel and the History Channel.  Not only do I love to watch shows about animals, but also about dinosaurs, astronomy and the universe.  In other words, I am facinated by science.  I suspect that I am not the only one as these shows are very popular.  Everyone, I suspect harbors wonder about the world we live in.  However, recently I picked up a series of books known as "The New Answers Book" series by Ken Ham.  I strongly encourage anyone with a strong interest in science to purchase a copy of these books or pick up a copy at the local library.  The first of three books in the series discusses Creation/Evolution and the Bible.  I study the Bible and many books about the Word daily.  So you could have knocked me over with a feather upon reading about the first 150 pages of "The New Answers Book 1".  It basically takes a Biblical view instead of a secular (man's view) of creation and evolution.  This just turned my whole world upside down.  All the years I enjoyed and have been fascinated by the science and nature as presented on the television networks named above, were all cast into the shadows.  And in the light lies this new view (new for me at least) called Creationism.  Where have I been?  How could I have missed this?  I feel so ignorant and frankly guilty that I have not discovered this earlier.  I feel all my life I have been brainwashed.  However, now that I have been exposed to it, I will dive into the pool and research this further, as much of it is science.  Below, are listed some of my research (mostly from Ken Ham so far) on creationism.  I will be quoting from numerous sources and like most everything in my study notes, provide the source of each quote so either me or anyone reading this can go to the source for further research and gain a lot more context and hopefully support the authors and their fine research.  The website for further research on the Creationism topic can be found at Ken Ham's website located at:  http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/nab .  Also, I found work by Donald Grey Barnhouse, “The Invisible War" which proposes another interesting view to which at this point, I am pulled more towards his view that there was an invisible war between Satan and God where Satan wanted to advance his own will against God.  God had created Satan as the most splendid of all his creatures, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty.  But Satan aquired pride.  He spoke: “I will ascend… I will exalt … I will sit … I will ascend … I wil be like the most High.” This was the origin of sin.  Contradicting God’s will has consequences.  The earth that Satan was given to rule as described in Genesis 1:1 that was magnificent, was suddenly cast into darkness, all lights out.  Satan’s world was destroyed and lay in waste in what Genesis 1:2 describes as was "without form and void."  Then, we begin with the recreation of the earth in Genesis 1:3.  This view allows for some of the Bible and science to coexist.  But evolution is not included as a part of this theory.
  2. Any theory of the universe that does not take into account the God and Creator of the universe is not worthy of serious consideration. - From page 87 of "Billy Graham in Quotes” by Franklin Graham.
  3. Most people think of the Bible as just a religious book, not necessarily a history (or science) book. If one starts to read it in the context of history, it can be thought of as a history book of the universe and its destiny.  It provides answers as to when time began, when sin and death began, when the globe was covered with water from the great flood, how there came to be different languages, when Jesus arrived, his death and resurrection and that new earth and heavens are to come.  - From page 153 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  4. When Satan rebelled and sin entered the universe, thre were two courses of action open to God, since His nature would not allow Him to ignore it.  The Almighty Jehovah, the most High, Possessor of heaven and earth, certainly had the power to strike down the creature whom He had brought into existence through His creative Word, and to annihilate him or put him in prison.  There was no lack of power or opportunity….
    But there was one matter which had to be attended to immediately.  A holy God could not permit a rebellion without showing His hatred of sin.  Holiness had to be manifested.  He must, unless He were to violate His character of holiness, blaze forth against sin.  His attitude must be declared even though He were about to permit surprising latitude to the rebel for a definite period of time.  God, therefore, spoke the Word of judgement and the material world - in fact, the whole domain of Satan - was blasted to chaos with a single breath from God.  There are many substantiations of this fact in both science and the Bible.  This is the event which occurred between the first and second verses of Genesis.  The world, waste and empty, without form and void, was the result of this Word of judgement spoken by the Almighty God.
    - From pages 52 -53 from the book Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse.
  5.  Psalms 104: Bless the Lord, O my soul. O Lord my God, thou art very great; thou art clothed with hounour and majesty. Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment: who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain.   
    Time and again God offers us signs of His power and wonder. If we will just keep our eyes open, the truth of God's existence will present itself over and over. God gives graciously to His children. Relax and enjoy the show that God puts on. It is nothing less than perfection. 
    Prayer: Do not let me turn blind eyes to the beauty of Your world, Lord. Throughout Your creation is Your signature. I cannot doubt Your existence in a world of such amazing splendor. Amen. - From the August 17th 2015 devotional reading from Wisdom from the Psalms by Dan R. Dick.
  6. Ultimately, there are only two ways of thinking: starting with the revelation from God (the Bible) as foundational to all thinking (including biology, history, and geology), resulting in a Christian worldview; or starting with man's beliefs (for example the evolutionary story) as foundational to all thinking, resulting is a secular worldview. - From page 153 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  7. The God of the Bible obliterates the division between the sacred and the secular by doing away with the secular altogether. The whole creation is sacred because the whole creation is God‘s—in him and from him and through him and to him.111 As Abraham Kuyper put it in his inaugural address at the Free University of Amsterdam, “There’s not one inch of the universe that Christ does not lay his hand on and say, ‛Mine!’” Patterson, Ben (2008-09-22). God's Prayer Book: The Power and Pleasure of Praying the Psalms (p. 92). Tyndale House Publishers - A. Kindle Edition. 
  8. Let us now consider some of the evidence substantiating the fact of God’s intervention in creation to wreck it by a great catastrophe at the time Lucifer made his bold bid for power.  Many details are to be found in various passages of the Old Testament which cannot be applied to any moment in time other that that described in the second verse in the Bible.  In the book of Jeremiah, we read: ”Beheld the earth, and, lo, it was without form and void; and the heavens, and they had no light.  I beheld the mountains, and, lo, there was no man, and all the hills moved lightly. I beheld, and lo, there was no man, and all the birds of the heavens were fled.  I beheld, and, lo, the fruitful place was a wilderness, and all the cities thereof were broken down at the presence of the Lord, and all his fierce anger” (Jeremiah 4:23-26).  By quoting in Jeremiah the second verse in Genesis, God has placed this passage in time for us.  Jeremiah’s vision is of the earth made waste and desolate; of the earth in the catastrophe that came in judgement and not in creation, since God states so exactly that He did not create the earth in chaos (Isiah 45:18, R.S.V.). - From page 55 from the book Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse.
  9. Most Christians have been indoctinated through the media and education system to think in a secular way.  They tend to take secular thinking to the Bible, instead of using the Bible to build their thinking (Romans 12:1-2; Ephesians 4:20-24). - From page 153 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  10. The Bible says that "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge" (Proverbs 1:7) and "the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom" (Proverbs 9:10).  If one begins with an evolutionary view of history (for which there were no witnesses or written record), then this way of thinking will be used to explain the evidence that exists in the present.  However, if one begins with the biblical view of history from the written record of an eyewitness (God) to all events of history, then a totally different way of thinking, based on this, will be used to explain the same evidence. - From page 154 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  11. The very first verse in the Bible declares: "In the beginning God... ." There is no attempt in these words to prove the existence of God or imply in any way that God had a beginning.  In fact, the Bible makes it clear in many places that God is outside time.  He is eternal, with no beginning or end.  He also knows all things, being infinitiely intelligent ( Psalm 90:2; 106:48; 147:5). -  From page 7 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  12. The earth was without form and void, waste and empty, a wreck and a ruin. From the catastrophe which touched all the sidereal heavens, there were tremendous manifestations of the earth.  An earthquake of such violent proportions took place that the mountains are said to have trembled, and the hills to have moved lightly.  It should be noticed that lightly does not mean slightly.  the hills moved with such lightness, would be a more adequate translation.  The RSV says the mountains were quaking and the hills moving to and fro.  The description is comparable to that of another judgement where it is said that the mountains skipped like rams and the little hills like lambs (Psalm 114:4).  It is a scene which, had there been an earthly onlooker to observe it, would have been described in terms of the most violent upheaval: mountain ranges were hurled across continents, hills following like scattered pebbles.  this is the force fo teh Psalmist’s phrase of hills skipping like lambs across a field.  Nothing but an explanation like this will satisfy the facts of geology where the various strata of the earth’s surface, sometimes vertical, sometimes horizontal, sometimes upside down, show how mountains were twisted and tortured until they lie in agonized heaps across the continents. like the cinders of a burnt out hell. - From pages 55-56 from the book Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse.
  13. …thinking of the original hardening of Satan against God and the wreckage which had come because of that rebellion, Job goes on to describe the judgement which had come: “Which removeth the mountains, and they know not: which overturneth them in his anger.  Which shaketh the earth out of her place, and the pillars [poles?] thereof tremble [are moved from vertical?].  Which commandeth the sun, and it riseth not; and sealeth up the stars….” (Job 9:5-7).  In addition to the catastrophe on earth, it is plainly stated that there was a catastrophe in the visible heavens.  Jeremiah declares that the heavens had no light (4:23), and Job says that the eight of the sun and the stars was shut off from the earth. …The shutting off of the light of the sun would have caused the precipitation of all moisture to the earth, and all of the waters of the earth would have been frozen.  The geologists tell us that there are traces of glaciers across the whole surface of the earth, with marks of a great ice cap in the center of equatorial Africa.  In one of the Psalms, there is further reference to God’s intervention in catastrophic judgement: “Then the earth shook and trembled; the foundations also of the hills moved and were shaken, because He was wroth… he bowed the heavens also, and came down: and darkness was under his feet… Then the channels of water were seen, and the foundations fo the world were discovered at thy rebuke, O Lord, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils” (Psalm 18:7-15). - From page 57 from the book Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse.
  14. … let us consider the judgement of the earth from a spiritual point of view.  It was a judgement which was particularly fitting, for it revealed at one and the same time the power of God and the impotence of Satan.  God had created the earth and the heavens by His Word.  Lucifer had announced that he wished to take possession of them for himself.  By the simple Word of God the heavens and the earth were toppled into judgement chaos.  In that same moment, Satan got his first mouthful of dust.- From pages 58-59 from the book Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse.
  15. Thus the judgement of God on Satan’s rebellion turned out the lights on this world.  We do not know how long this period of judgement lasted.  It may have been long ages.  The geologists tell us of the scars of the travail of earlier years, and they believe that millions of years must have been necessary to have brough about some of the phenomena which are found in the earth.  Let it be millions of years.  Whatever the theory as to primeval time, it can be dropped into the vastness of Genesis.  Does some theorist wish to claim that a billion years in between the judging blast of God and the fiat of light.  Does another scientist advance a theory which seems to destroy this and set forth a hypothesis which would show that all natural phenomena can be explained on a basis of brevity?  Then say that the going forth of the command of light followed the devastation of judgment’s wreckage by no more than the interval between one stroke of lightning and its thunder.  At the moment, science holds a theory of length of ages.  This does not contradict the Biblical facts, for the Bible furnishes only an outline enabling us to discern the sequence of events but not the time length in the details of the events.  
    In any event the curtain of darkness fell on the first act.  The interval may be counted short from God’s point of view, and yet long from a scientist’s point of view.  A child counts a year as along time; an adult has learned different.  From the point of comparison with eternity, the intervals of time are but flashing instants. 
    - From pages 61-62 from the book Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse.
  16. Intelligent Design and Natural Selection - Life is built on information.  A great amount of this information is contained in that molecule of heredity, DNA, which makes up the genes of an organism. Therefore, to argue that natural selection and mutations are the basic mechanisms of the evolutionary process, one must show that these processes produce the information responsible for the design that is evident in living things.  Natural selection only operates on the infomration that is already contained in the genes - it does not produce new information.  Actually, this is consistent with the Bible's account of origins, in that God created distinct kinds of animals and plants, each to produce after its own kind. Of course, there exists a great variety of each kind.  An example would be dogs, where there exists great variation.  And if one knows anything about how these different varieties came about, they came from breeding of the different varieties to create new vaireieties.  But ehse all started from the same initial created dog kind.  Natural selection operated on the information already found in the genes of the dog.  But the point is that no new information was produced - these varieties of dogs have resulted from a rearrangement, sorting out, and separation of the infomration in the original dog kind.  One kind has never been observed to change into a totally different kind with information that previously did not exist.  Without intelligent input to increase information, natural selection will not work as a mechanism for evolution.  Without a way to increase information, natural selection will not work as a mechanism for evolution.  Scientists have never found a mutation that added information.  All point mutations that have been studied on the molecular level turn out to reduce the genetic information and not to increase it.  Not even one mutation has been observed that adds a little information to the genome.  Mutations can only cause changes in existing information.  There can be no increase in information, and in general the results are injurious.  Mutations cannot be the source of new (creative) information. - From pages 13 - 15 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  17. Scientists have found that within the cell, there are thousands of what can be called "biochemical machines."  For example, one could cite the cell's ability to sense light and turn it into electrical impulses.  But what scientists once thought was a simple process within a cell, such as being able to sense light and turn it into electrical impulses, is in fact a highly complicated event.  For just this one example alone to work, numerous compounds need to be in the right place at the right time, in the right concentration - or it just won't happen.  And there are literally thousands of such "machines" in a single cell that are vital for it to operate.  What does this mean?  Quite simpley, evolution from chemicals to a living system is impossible.  Scientists know that life is built on these "machines."  These biological machines are examples of irreducible complexity.  Now it's the turn of the fundamental science of life, modern biochemistry to disturb.  The simplicity that was once expected to be the foundation of life has proven to be a phantom; instead, systems of horrendous, irreducible complexity inhabit the cell.  The resulting realization that life was designed by an intelligence is a shock to us in the twentieth century who have gotten used to thinking of life as a result of simple natural laws.  But other centuries have had their shocks, and there is no reason to suppose that we should escape them.  The more we look into the workings of life, the more complicated it becomes, and the more we see that life could not arise by itself.  Not only does life require a source of information, but the complex "machines" of the chemistry of life must be in existence right from the start. - From pages 16 - 18 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  18. Information cannot arise from disorder by chance.  It always takes (greater) information to produce information, and ultimately information is the result of intelligence.  There is no natural law through which matter can give rist to information, neither is any physical process or material phenomenon known that can do this.  There is no know law of nature, no known process and no known sequence of events which can cause information to originate by itself in matter.  Any God capable of intelligently designing something as complex as the DNA/protein replicating machine must have been at least as complex and organized as the machine itself. - From pages 19 - 20 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  19. The Bible takes God's existence as a given.  It never attempts to prove the existence of God, and this is for a very good reason.  When we logically prove a particular thing, we show that it must be true because it follws logically from something authoritative.  But ther is nothing more authoritative than God and His Word.  God knows absolutely everything.  So it makes sense to base our worldview on what God has written in His Word. - From page 22 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  20. There are orderly laws because a logical law-giver upholds the universe in a logical and consistent way.  God does not change; so He sustains the universe in a consistent way.  Only a biblical worldview can account for the existence of science and technology. - From page 22 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  21. The exciting thing about being a Christian is knowing that the Bible is not just another religious book, but it is the Word of the Creator God, as it claims.  Only the Bible explains why there is beauty and ugliness; why there is life and death; why ther is health and disease; why ther is love and hate.  Only the Bible gives us the true and reliable account of the origin of all basic entities of life adn the entire universe.  Over and over again, the Bible's historical account has been confirmed by archaeology, biology, geology, and astronomy.  No contradictionor erroneous information has ever to be found in its pages, even though it was written over hundreds of years by many different authors, each inspired by the Holy Spirit. - From page 24 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  22. We merely sum up in passing, even as the phrase in the ten commandments does, the events of the six days.  There we read:  "For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea and all that in them is”  (Exodus 20:11).  Note well that it does not say that the Lord created these things in six days. The verb create is used for origination.  The other verbs used in the story of the six days have no concept of creation in them.  These new words have to do with the arranging and ordering of the existing materials into new forms.  “God divided … God made … God gathered … God set …”  These are the predicates of the account of the six days.  They are words used of secondary work which has no thought of creation in it.  Thus we may repudiate utterly the idea that the world was created in six days, and establish that the Bible, when taken in its utmost literalness, teaches that the perfect, created world was blasted to ruin and desolation after which it was reformed and fashioned in the six days as the stage upon which the drama of sin and redemption was to take place.  - From pages 65-66 from the book Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse.
  23. There is an intensifying controversy in the church all over the world regarding the age of the earth.  For the first 18 centuries of church history the almost universal belief of Christians was that God created the world in six literal days roughly 4,000 years before Christ and destroyed the world with a global flood at the time of Noah.  But about 200 years ago some scientists developed new theories of earth history, which proposed that the earth and universe are millions of years old.  Over the past 200 years Christian leaders have made various attempts to fit millions of years into the Bible.  These include the day-age view, gap theory, local flood view, framework hypotheses, theistic evolution, and progressive creation.  - From page 25 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  24. Reasons thought that Christians cannot accept the millions of years without doing great damage to the church and her witness in the world:  - From page 26-30 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  This section in the book is referenced as being from Terry Mortenson.
  25. The Bible clearly teaches that God created in six literal, 24-hour days a few thousand years ago. The word "day" is used 2301 times in the Old Testament.  Why question its use in Genesis?
  26. The context of Genesis 1 clearly shows the days of creation were literal days. "Yom" is day ands is defined the first time it is used in the Bible (Genesis 1:4-5).  For further explanation, see Ken Ham's book referenced in the footnote above.
  27. The genealogies of Genesis 5 and 11 make it clear that the creation days happened only about 6,000 years ago.
  28. Exodus 20:9-11 blocks all attempts to fit millions of years into Genesis 1.  The gap theory or any other attempt to put millions of years before the six days are also false because God says that in six days He made the heaven and the earth and the sea and all that is in them.  So He made everything in those six literal days and nothing before the first day.
  29. Noah's Flood washes away millions of years.  The evidence in Genesis 6-9 for a global catastrophic flood is overwhelming.  For example, the Flood was intended to destroy not only all sinful people but also all land animals and birds and the surface of the earth, which only a global flood could accomplish.  The Ark was totally unnecessary if the flood was only local. The Hebrew words translated "the fountains of the great deep burst open" (Genesis 7:11) clearly point to tectonic rupturing of the earth's surface in many places for 150 days, resulting in volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis.  Noah's Flood would produce exactly the kind of complex geological record we see worldwide today: thousands of feet of sediments clearly deposited by water and later hardened into rock and containing billions of fossils.  If the year-long Flood is responsible for most rock layers and fossils, then those rocks and fossils cannot represent the history of the earth over millions of years, as evolutionists claim.
  30. Jesus was a young-earth creationist.  Jesus consistently treated the miracle account of the Old Testament as straightforward, truthful, historical accounts (e.g. creation of Adam, Noah and the Flood, Lot and his wife in Sodom, Moses and the manna, and Jonah in the fish). He continually affirmed the authority of Scripture over men's ideas and traditions (Matthew 15:1-9).  In Mark 10:6 we have the clearest (but not the only) statement showing that Jesus was a young-earth creationist.  He teaches that Adam and Eve were made at the "beginning of creation," not billions of years after the beginning, as would be the case if the universe were really billions of years old.  So, if Jesus was a young-earth creationist, then how can His faithful followers have any other view?
  31. Belief in millions of years undermines the Bible's teaching on death and on the character of God.  Genesis 1 says six times that God called the creation "good," and when He finished creation on Day 6, He called everything "very good." Man and animals were originally vegetarian (Gen. 1:29-30, plants are not "living creatures," as people and animals are, according to Scripture).  But Adam and Eve sinned, resulting in the judgement of God on the whole creation.  Instantly Adam and Eve died spiritually, and after God's curse they began to die physically.  The whole creation now groans in bondage to corruption, waiting for the final redemption of Christians (Romans 8:19-25) when we will see the restoration of all things (Acts 3:21; Colossians 1:20) to a state similar to the pre-Fall world, when there will be no more carnivorous behavior (Isaiah 11:6-9) and no disease, suffering, or death (Revelation 21:3-5) because there will be no more Curse (Revelation 22:3).  To accept millions of years of animal death before the creation and Fall of man contradicts and destroys the Bible's teaching on death and the full redemptive work of Christ.
  32. The idea of millions of years did not come from scientific facts.  This idea of long ages was developed by deistic and atheistic geologists in the late eighteenth centuries.  These men used anti-biblical philosophical and religious assumptions to interpret the geological observations in a way that plainly contradicted the biblical account of creation, the Flood, and the age of the earth.  Most church leaders and scholars quickly compromised using the gap theory, day-age view, local flood view, etc. to try to fit "deep time" into the bible.  But they did not understand the geological arguments and they did not defend their views by careful Bible study.  The "deep time" idea flows out of naturalistic assumptions, not scientific observations.
  33. Radiometric dating methods do not prove millions of years.  In recent years creationists in the RATE project have done experimental, theoretical, and field research to uncover more such evidence (e.g. diamonds and coal, which the evolutionists say are millions of years old, were dated by Carbon-14 to be only thousands of years old) and to show that decay rates were orders of magnitude faster in the past, which shrinks the millions of years to thousands of years, confirming the Bible.
  34. God's Word must be the final authority on all matters about which it speaks - not just the moral and spiritual matters, but also its teachings that bear on history, archaeology, and science.  What is at stake here is the authority of Scripture, the character of God, the doctrine of death, and the very foundation of the gospel.  IF the early chapters of Genesis are not true literal history, then faith in the rest of the Bible is undermined, including its teaching about salvation and morality.
  35. Once you accept evolution and its implications about history, then man becomes free to pick and choose which parts of the Bible he wants to accept.  - From page 32 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  36. Creationwise, which resource are you more likely to trust, the Holy Bible: "It is written" (Matt: 4:4) or evolution belief that is rewritten, rewritten, rewritten, rewritten and rewritten an ...? - From page 37 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  37. The battle is not one of young earth vs. old earth, or billions of years vs. six days, or creation vs. evolution - the real battle is the authority of the Word of God vs, man's fallible opinions.  - From page 38 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  38. Among the most widely prevalent attacks upon the book of Genesis is the idea, universally taught by liberal theologians and, unfortunately, disseminated by many teachers who are merely the echoes of the echoes of the originators of the theory; that the first and second chapters of Genesis contain two different stories of creation, and that these two stories were patched together by a later editor to make the account which we possess today.  This, of course, is not so.  In the first place, we have shown that there is no detailed account of the original creation to be found anywhere in the Bible.  There is not one line to tell us whether this original creation took place in the flash of a Word, or whether God was pleased to plant a perfect amoeba and let it split and re-split for ages and ages.  We simply do not know.  In the second place, these two chapters of Genesis do not even contain two different accounts of the refashioning or the restoration of the earth.  What the Genesis account does do is first to give a general outline of the order of the events.  - From page 67 from the book Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse.
  39. The Law of Life (Biogenesis) - There is one well-known law of life:  the law of biogenesis.  This law states simply that life always comes from life.  This is what observational science tells us:  organisms reproduce other organisms after their own kind.  Historically, Louis Pasteur disproved one form of spontaneous generation; he showed that life comes from previous life.  Since then, we have seen that this law is universal - with no known exceptions.  This is exactly what we would expect from the Bible.  According to Genesis 1, God supernaturally created the first diverse kinds of life on earth and made them to reproduce after their kind.  Notice that the molecules-to-man evolution violates the law of biogenesis.  Evolutionists believe that life (at least once) spontaneously formed from non-living chemicals.  But this is inconsistent with the law of biogenesis.  Real science confirms the Bible.  - From page 39-40 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  40. Our current understanding of the creation is imperfect.  One is reminded of Corinthians 13:12, which tells us that we only "see through a glass darkly." - From page 44 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  41. Gap Theory - In the Gap Theory, millions or billions of years are inserted between Genesis 1.1 and Genesis 1.2.  In other words, there is a gap of time between Genesis 1.1 (In the beginning God Created the heaven and the earth) and Genesis 1.2 (And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.  And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.).  Gap theorists oppose evolution but believe in an ancient origin of the universe.   - From page 48-52 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
  42. Problems with the Gap Theory - From pages 53-57 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.
    1. 1)  It is inconsistent with God creating everything in six days, as Scripture states. 
    2. 2) It puts death, disease, and suffering before the Fall, contrary to Scripture.  Romans 5:12 says, "Therefore just as through one an [Adam] entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned."  The Bible teaches in 1 Corinthians 15 that Adam was the first man, and as a result of his rebellion (sin), death and corruption (disease, bloodshed, and suffering) entered the universe.  Before Adam sinned, there could not have been any animal (nephesh) or human death.
    3. 3)  The gap theory is logically inconsistent because it explains away what is supposed to accommodate - supposed evidence for an old earth.  They believe the earth is very old based on geological evidence interpreted with the assumption that the present is the key to the past.  The assumption implies that in the past sediments containing fossils formed at basically the same rate as they do today.  This process is also used by most geologists and biologists to justify belief that the geologic column represents billions of years of earth history.  This geological column has become the showcase of evolution because the fossils are claimed to show ascent from simple to complex life forms.  They propose that God reshaped the earth and re-created all life in six literal days after Lucifer's flood (which produced fossils); hence the name "ruin-reconstruction."  Satin's sin supposedly caused this flood, and the resulting judgment upon that sin reduced the previous world to a state of being "without form or void."  If all, or most, of the sediments and fossils were produced quickly in one massive worldwide Lucifer's flood, then the main evidence that the earth is extremely old no longer exists, becuase the age of the earth is based on the assumed slow formation of earth's sediments.  Also, if the world was reduced to a shapeless, chaotic mess, as gap theorists propose, how could a reasonably orderd assemblage of fossils and sediments remain as evidence?  Surely with such chaos the fossil record would have been severely disrupted, if not entirely destroyed.  This argument also applies to those who say that the fossil record formed over hundreds of millions of years before the so-called Licifer's flood, which would have severely rearranged things. 
    4. 4)  The gap theory does away with the evidence for the historical event of the global flood.  If the fossil record was formed by Lucifer's flood, then what did the flood of Noah's day do?  On this point the gap theorist is forced to conclude that the global flood must have left virtually no trace.  To be consistent, the gap theorist would also have to defend that the global Flood was a local event.  Genesis, however, depicts the global Flood as a judgment for man's sin (Genesis 6).  Water flooded the earth for over a year (Genesis 6:17; 7:19-24) and only eight people, along with two of every kind (and seven of some) of air-breathing, land-dwelling animal survived (Genesis 7:23).  It is more consistent with the whole framework of Scripture to attribute more fossils to the global Flood of Noah's day rather than to resort to a strained interpretation of the fall of Satan and a totally speculative catastrophe that contributes nothing to biblical understanding or to science.
    5. 5) The gap theorist ignores the evidence for a young earth.  The true gap theorist also ignores evidence consistent with an earth fewer than 10,000 years of age.  There is much evidence for this - the decay and rapid reversals of the earth's magnetic field, the amount of salt in the oceans, the wind-up of the spiral galaxies, and much more. 
    6. 6)  The gap theory fails to accommodate standard uniformitarian geology with its long ages.  Today's uniformitarian geologists allow for no worldwide flood of any kind - the imaginary Lucifer's flood or the historical Flood of Noah's day.  They also recognize no break between the supposed former created world and the current recreated world.
    7. 7)  Most importantly, the gap theory undermines the gospel at its foundation.  By accepting an ancient age for the earth (based on the standard uniformitarian interpretation of the geological column), gap theorists leave the evolutionary system intact (which by their own assumptions they oppose).  Even worse, they must also theorize that Romans 5:12 and Genesis 3:3 refer only to a spiritual death.  But this contradicts other scriptures, such as 1 Corinthians 15 and Genesis 3:22-23.  These passages tell us that Adam's sin led to a physical death, as well as a spiritual death.  In 1 Corinthians 15 the death of the Last Adam (the Lord Jesus Christ) is compared with the death of the first Adam.  Jesus suffered physical death for man's sin, because Adam, the first man, died physically because of sin.  In cursing man with physical death, God also provided a way to redeem man through the person of His Son Jesus Christ, who suffered the curse of death on the cross for us.  He "tasted death for everyone" according to Hebrews 2:9.  He took the penalty that should rightly have been ours at the hands of the Righteous Judge, and bore it in His own body on the Cross.  Jesus Christ tasted death for all mankind, and He defeated death when He rose from the grave three days later.  Men can be free from eternal death in hell if they believe in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior.  They then are received back to God to spend eternity with Him.  This is the message of Christianity..  To believe there was death before Adam's sin destroys the basis of the Christian message.  The Bible states that man's rebellious actions led to death and the corruption of the universe, but the gap theory undermines the reason that man needs a Savior.
  43. Doesn't Carbon 14 Dating Disprove the Bible?  - From page 78-87 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
    1. When a scientist's interpretation of data does not match the clear meaning of the text in the Bible, we should never reinterpret the Bible.  God knows just what He meant to say, and His understanding of science is infallible, whereas ours is fallible.  So we should never think it necessary to modify His Word.  Genesis 1 defines the days of creation to be literal days (a number with the word "day" always means a normal day in the Old Testament, and the phrase "evening and morning" further defines the days as literal days).  Since the Bible is the inspired Word of God, we should examine the validity of the standard interpretation of C-14 dating by asking several questions:  1) Is the explanation of the data derived from empirical, observational science, or an interpretation of past events (historical science)?  2) Are there any assumptions involved in the dating method?  3) Are the dates provided by C14 dating consistent with what we observe?  4)  Do all scientists accept the C-14 dating method as reliable and accurate?  The secular (evolutionary) worldview interprets the universe and the world to be billions of years old.  The Bible teaches a young universe and earth.  Because of the rapid rate of decay of C-14, it can only give dates in the thousands-of-year range, not millions. 
    2. Carbon-14 dating (radiometric dating) with an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) only dates living things, not rocks and such. Carbon 14 (C-14) and C-12, in mixing with Oxygen in the atmosphere to form CO2 gets incorporated into plants (which means the food we eat contains C-14 and C-12), all living things should have the same ratio of C-14 and C-12 in them as in the air we breathe.   Once a living thing dies, the dating process begins.  As long as an organism is alive it will continue to take in C-14; however, when it dies, it will stop.  Since C-14 is radioactive (decays into N-14), the amount of C-14 in a dead organism gets less and less over time.  Therefore, part of the dating process involves measuring the amount of C-14 that remains after some has been lost (decayed).  Scientists now use an AMS to determine the ratio of C-14 to C-12, which increases the assumed accuracy to about 80,000 years.  C-12 is more stable than C-14.  Because of the rapid rate of decay of C-14, it can only give dates in the thousands of year range, not millions.  In order to actually do the dating, other things need to be known.  Two things include the following questions: 1) How fast does C-14 decay? and 2) What was the starting amount of C-14 in the creature when it died? 
    3. The decay rate of radioactive elements is described in terms of half-life.  The half-life of an atom is the amount of time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay.  The half-life of C-14 is 5,730 years.  
    4. Since the half-life of C-14 is known (how fast it decays), the only part left to determine is the starting amount of C-14 in a fossil.  If scientist know the original amount of C-14 in a creature when it died, they can measure the current amount and then calculate how many half-lives have passed.  Since no one was there to measure the amount of C-14 when a creature dies, scientists need to find a method to determine how much C-14 has decayed.  
    5. All living things take in carbon (C-12 and C-14) from eating and breathing.  Therefore, the ratio of C-14 to C-12 in living creatures will be the same in the atmosphere.  This ratio turns out to be about one C-14 atom for every 1 trillion C-12 atoms.  Scientists can use this ratio to help determine the starting amount of C-14.  
    6. When an organism dies, this ratio (1 to 1 trillion) will begin to change.  The amount of C-12 will remain constant, but the amount of C-14 will become less and less.  The smaller the ratio, the longer the organism has been dead.
    7. A critical assumption used in carbon-14 dating has to do with this ratio.  It is assumed that the ratio of C-14 to C-12 in the atmosphere has always been the same as it is today (1 to 1 trillion).  If this assumption is true, then the AMS C-14 dating method is valid up to 80,000 years.  Beyond this number, the instruments scientists use would not be able to detect enough remaining C-14 to be useful in age estimates.  This is critical assumption in the dating process.  If this assumption is not true, then the method will give incorrect dates.  
    8. Dr. WIllard Libby, the founder of of the C-14 dating method, assumed the ratio to be constant.  His reasoning was based on a belief in evolution, which assumes the earth must be billions of years old.  Assumptions in the scientific community are extremely important.  If the starting assumption is false, all the calculations based on that assumption might be correct but still give a wrong conclusion.  
    9. In Dr. Libby's original work, he noted that the atmosphere did not appear to be in equilibrium.  This was a troubling idea for Dr. Libby since he believed the earth was billions of years old and enough time had passed to achieve equilibrium.  Dr. Libby's calculations showed that if the earth started with no C-14 in the atmosphere, it would take up to 30,000 years to build up to a steady state (equilibrium).  
    10. Dr. Libby chose to ignore this discrepancy (nonequilibrium state), and he attributed it to experimental error.  However, the discrepancy has turned out to be very real.  The ratio of C-14/C-12 is not constant.  The Specific Production Rate (SPR) of C-14 is known to be 18.8 atoms per gram of total carbon per minute.  The Specific Decay Rate (SDR) is known to be only 16.1 disintegrations per gram per minute.  What does this mean?  If it takes about 30,000 years to reach equilibrium and C-14 is still out of equilibrium, then maybe the earth is not very old.
    11. Other factors can affect the production of C-14 in the atmosphere.  The earth has a magnetic field around it which helps protect us from harmful radiation from outer space.  This magnetic field is decaying (getting weaker).  The stronger the field around the earth, the fewer the number of cosmic rays that are able to reach the atmosphere.  This would result in a smaller production of C-14 in the atmosphere in the earth's past.  The cause for long term variation of the C-14 level is not known.  The variation is certainly partially the result in a change in the cosmic ray production rate of radiocarbon.  The cosmic-ray flux, and hence the production rate of C-14, is a function not only of the solar activity but also of the magnetic dipole moment of the earth.   Though complex, this history of the earth's magnetic field agrees with Barnes' basic hypothesis, that the field has always freely decayed...The field has always been losing energy despite its variations, so it cannot be more than 10,000 years old.  Earth's magnetic filed is fading.  Today it is about 10 percent weaker than it was when German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss started keeping tabs on it in 1845, scientists say.  If the production rate of C-14 in the atmosphere was less in the past, dates given using the C-14 method would incorrectly assume that more C-14 has decayed out of a specimen than what has actually occurred.  This would result in giving older dates than the true age. 
    12. Genesis Flood - The Flood would have buried large amounts of carbon from living organisms (plant and animal) to form today's fossil fuels (coal, oil, etc).  The amount of fossil fuels indicates there must have been a vastly larger quantity of vegetation in existence prior to the Flood than exists today.  This means that the biosphere just prior to the Flood might have had 500 times more carbon in living organisms than today.  This would further dilute the amount of C-14 and cause the C-14/C-12 ratio to be much smaller than today.  If this were the case, and this C-14 were distributed uniformly throughout the biosphere, and the total amount of biosphere C were, for example 500 times that of today's world, the resulting C-14/C-12 ratio would be 1/500 of today's level.....  When the Flood is taken into account, along with the decay of the magnetic field, it is reasonable to believe that the assumption of equilibrium is a false assumption.  Because of this false assumption, any age estimates using C-14 on organic material that dates from prior to the Flood will give much older dates than the true ages.  Pre-Flood organic materials would be dated at perhaps ten times the true age.
  44. The RATE Group Findings - Back in 1997 an eight-year research group composed of eight scientists (PhDs of Atmospheric Science, Physics, Geophysics, Geologists and Hebraic and Cognate Studies) was started to investigate the age of the earth.  The group was called the RATE group (Radioisotopes and the Age of The Earth).  The objective was to gather data commonly ignored or censored by evolutionary standards of dating.  The scientists reviewed the assumptions and procedures used in estimating the ages of rocks and fossils.  The results of the carbon-14 dating demonstrated serious problems for long geologic ages.Many of the fossilized wood samples that had been dated to be 40 to 350 million years old all yielded significant, detectable levels of carbon-14 that would conventionally equate to only 30,000-45,000 years "ages" for the original trees.  Samples of coal that had been previously dated at millions to hundreds of millions of years old based on standard evolution time estimates, all contained measurable amounts of C-14.  Since the half-life of C-14 is relatively short (5,730 years), there should be no detectable C-14 left after about 100,000 years.  The average C-14 estimated age for all the layers from the time periods samples tested was approximately 50,000 years.  However, using a more realistic pre-Flood C-14/C-12 ratio reduces that age to about 5,000 years.  These results indicate that the entire fossil-bearing geologic column is much less than 100,000 years old - and even much younger.  This confirms the Bible and challenges the evolutionary idea of long geologic ages.  Also the RATE group tested diamonds that were previously estimated by evolutionary scientists to be millions to billions of years old using other radiometric dating methods.  These methods were also based on questionable assumptions.  Diamonds, based on their hardness are extremely resistant to contamination through chemical exchange.    The RATE group found detectable levels of C-14 in these diamonds.  These findings are powerful evidence that coal and diamonds cannot be the millions or billions of years old that evolutionists claim.  Indeed, these RATE findings of detectable C-14 in diamonds has been confirmed independently.  Carbon-14 found in fossils at all layers of the geologic column, in coal and in diamonds, is evidence which confirms the biblical timescale of thousands of years and not billions.  Carbon-14 data is now firmly on the side of the young-earth view of history.  The RATE Project website can be found at: http://www.icr.org/research/rate/ .
  45. Starlight Argument against a Young Earth - For this I reference a website, due to it's long detailed explanation.  The website is connected to this book and can be found at: http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/nab/does-starlight-prove . This information is from the conclusion of this section of the website:
  46. So, we’ve seen that the critics of creation must use a number of assumptions in order to use distant starlight as an argument against a young universe. And many of these assumptions are questionable. Do we know that light has always propagated at today’s speed? Perhaps this is reasonable, but can we be absolutely certain, particularly during Creation Week when God was acting in a supernatural way? Can we be certain that the Bible is using “cosmic universal time,” rather than the more common “cosmic local time” in which light reaches earth instantly?
  47. We know that the rate at which time flows is not rigid. And although secular astronomers are well aware that time is relative, they assume that this effect is (and has always been) negligible, but can we be certain that this is so? And since stars were made during Creation Week when God was supernaturally creating, how do we know for certain that distant starlight has arrived on earth by entirely natural means? Furthermore, when big bang supporters use distant starlight to argue against biblical creation, they are using a self-refuting argument since the big bang has a light travel-time problem of its own. When we consider all of the above, we see that distant starlight has never been a legitimate argument against the biblical timescale of a few thousand years.
  48. As creation scientists research possible solutions to the distant starlight problem, we should also remember the body of evidence that is consistent with the youth of the universe. We see rotating spiral galaxies that cannot last multiple billions of years because they would be twisted-up beyond recognition. We see multitudes of hot blue stars, which even secular astronomers would agree cannot last billions of years.8 In our own solar system we see disintegrating comets and decaying magnetic fields that cannot last billions of years; and there is evidence that other solar systems have these things as well. Of course, such arguments also involve assumptions about the past. That is why, ultimately, the only way to know about the past for certain is to have a reliable historic record written by an eyewitness. That is exactly what we have in the Bible.
  49. The Bible makes it clear that death, bloodshed, disease, thorns, and suffering are a consequence of sin.  In Genesis 1:29-30, God gave Adam and Eve and the animals plants to eat (this is reading Genesis at face value, as literal history, as Jesus did in Matthew 19:3-6).  Man was permitted to eat meat only after the Flood (Genesis 9:3).  This makes it obvious that the statements in Genesis 1:29-30 were meant to inform us that man and the animals were vegetarian to start with.  Also, in Genesis 9:2, we are told of a change God apparently made in the way animals react to man.  God warned Adam in Genesis 2:17 that if he ate of the "tree of knowledge of good and evil" he would "die."  In other words, it would be the commencement of a process of physical dying (see Genesis 3:19).  It also clearly involved spiritual death (separation from God).  - From page 99 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  50. God requires the shedding of blood for the remission of sins.  What happened in the Garden of Eden was a picture of what was to come in Jesus Christ, who shed His blood on the Cross as the Lamb of God who took away the sins of the world (John 1:29).  Now if the Garden of Eden were sitting on a fossil record of dead things millions of years old, then blood was shed before sin.  This would destroy the foundation of the Atonement.The Bible s clear: the sin of Adam brought death and suffering into the world.  As Romans 8:19-22 tells us, the whole of creation "groans" because of the effects of the fall of Adam, and the creation will be liberated "from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God (Rom. 8:21).  Also, bear in mind that thorns came into existence after the Curse.  Because there are thorns in the fossil record, it had to be formed after Adam and Eve sinned.    - From page 100 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  51. God provided light (Genesis 1:3) the first three days  before He created the sun on day 4 of creation and the rotating earth created the day and nights.  Revelation 21:23 tells us that one day the sun will not be needed because the glory of God will light the heavenly city.  The sun did not give birth to the earth as evolutionary theories postulate; the sun was God's created tool to rule the day that God had made (Genesis 1:16).    - From page 102 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  52. If God created everything in six days, as the Bible says, then surely this reveals the power and wisdom of God in a profound way - Almighty God did not need eons of time.  However, the billions-of-years scenarios diminish God by suggesting that mere chance could create things or that God needed huge amounts of time to create things - this would be limiting God's power by reducing it to naturalistic explanations.   - From page 104 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  53. Contradictions between the Order of Creation in the Bible and Evolution/Long-Ages - Biblical Account vs. Evolution/Long Age:  - From page 110 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
    1. Earth before sun and stars vs. Stars and sun before earth
    2. Earth covered in water initially vs. Earth a molten blob initially
    3. Oceans first, then dry land vs. Dry land then oceans
    4. Life first created on land vs. Life started in the oceans
    5. Plants created before the sun vs. Plants came long after the sun
    6. Land animals created after birds vs. Land animals existed before birds
    7. Whales before land animals vs. Land animals before whales.
  54. Long-Age Compromises - Other than the "gap theory" (the belief that there is a gap of indeterminate time between the first two verses of Genesis 1), the major compromise positions that try to harmonize long ages  and/or evolution with Genesis fall into two categories: - From page 110 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  55. 1. "theistic evolution" wherein God supposedly directed the evolution process of millions of years, or even just set it up and let it run, and 
  56. 2. "progressive creation" where God supposedly intervened in the processes of death and struggle to create millions of species at various times over millions of years.
  57. All long-age compromises reject Noah's Flood as global - it could only be a local event because the fossil layers are accepted as evidence for millions of years.  A global Flood would have destroyed this record and produced another.  Therefore, these positions cannot allow a catastrophic global Flood that would form layers of fossil-bearing rocks over the earth.  This, of course, goes against Scripture, which obviously teaches a global Flood (Genesis 6-9).  Sadly, most theologians years ago simply tried to add this belief to the Bible instead of realizing that these layers were laid down by Noah's Flood. - From page 110 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  58. It does matter what a Christian believes concerning the days of creation in Genesis 1.  Most importantly, all schemes which insert eons of time into, or before, creation undermine the gospel by putting death, bloodshed, disease, thorns, and suffering before sin and the Fall,   - From page 111 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  59. It is really a matter of how one approaches the Bible, in principal.  If we do not allow the language to speak to us in context, but try to make the text fit ideas outside of Scripture, then ultimately the meaning of any word in any part of the Bible depends on man's interpretation, which can change according to whatever outside ideas are in vogue.   - From page 111 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  60. If one allows science (which has wrongly become synonymous with evolution and materialism) to determine our understanding of scripture, then this can lead to a slippery slope of unbelief through the rest of Scripture.  For instance, science would proclaim that a person cannot be raised from the dead.  Does this mean we should interpret the Resurrection of Christ to reflect this?  Sadly, some do just this, saying that the Resurrection simply means that Jesus' teachings live on in His followers.  - From page 111 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  61. God's people need to realize that the Word of God is something very special.  It is not just the words of men.  As Paul said in 1 Thessalonians 2:13, "You received it not as the word of men, but as it is, truly the word of God."  Proverbs 30:5-6 states that "every word of God is pure....Do not add to His words, lest He reprove you and you be found a liar."  The Bible cannot be treated as just some great literary work.  We need to "tremble at His word" (Isaiah 66:2) and not forget:  All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work (2 Timothy 3:16-17).  In the original autographs, every word and letter in the Bible is there because God put it there.  Let us listen to God speaking to us through His Word and not arrogantly think we can tell God what He really means!    - From page 111-112 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  62. Radiometric dating methods also have their faults, as they are a blend of historical and observational science.  Historical science cannot be observed.  Determining the conditions present when the rock was first formed can only be studied through historical science.  Determining how the environment might have affected the rock also falls under historical science.  Neither condition is directly observable.  Since radioisotope dating uses both types of science, we can't directly measure the age of something.  We can us scientific techniques in the present, combined with assumptions about historical events, to estimate age.  Therefore, there are several assumptions that must be made in radioisotope dating.  Three critical assumptions can affect the results of radioisotope dating: 1. The initial conditions of the rock sample are accurately known.  2. The amount of the parent or daughter elements in a sample has not been altered by processes other than radioactive decay.  3. The decay rate (or half-life) of the parent isotope has remained constant since the rock was formed.    - From page 116 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  63.  Doesn't Carbon 14 Dating Disprove the Bible?  - From pages 78-87 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
    1. When a scientist's interpretation of data does not match the clear meaning of the text in the Bible, we should never reinterpret the Bible.  God knows just what He meant to say, and His understanding of science is infallible, whereas ours is fallible.  So we should never think it necessary to modify His Word.  Genesis 1 defines the days of creation to be literal days (a number with the word "day" always means a normal day in the Old Testament, and the phrase "evening and morning" further defines the days as literal days).  Since the Bible is the inspired Word of God, we should examine the validity of the standard interpretation of C-14 dating by asking several questions:  1) Is the explanation of the data derived from empirical, observational science, or an interpretation of past events (historical science)?  2) Are there any assumptions involved in the dating method?  3) Are the dates provided by C14 dating consistent with what we observe?  4)  Do all scientists accept the C-14 dating method as reliable and accurate?  The secular (evolutionary) worldview interprets the universe and the world to be billions of years old.  The Bible teaches a young universe and earth.  Because of the rapid rate of decay of C-14, it can only give dates in the thousands-of-year range, not millions. 
    2. Carbon-14 dating (radiometric dating) with an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) only dates living things, not rocks and such. Carbon 14 (C-14) and C-12, in mixing with Oxygen in the atmosphere to form CO2 gets incorporated into plants (which means the food we eat contains C-14 and C-12), all living things should have the same ratio of C-14 and C-12 in them as in the air we breathe.   Once a living thing dies, the dating process begins.  As long as an organism is alive it will continue to take in C-14; however, when it dies, it will stop.  Since C-14 is radioactive (decays into N-14), the amount of C-14 in a dead organism gets less and less over time.  Therefore, part of the dating process involves measuring the amount of C-14 that remains after some has been lost (decayed).  Scientists now use an AMS to determine the ratio of C-14 to C-12, which increases the assumed accuracy to about 80,000 years.  C-12 is more stable than C-14.  Because of the rapid rate of decay of C-14, it can only give dates in the thousands of year range, not millions.  In order to actually do the dating, other things need to be known.  Two things include the following questions: 1) How fast does C-14 decay? and 2) What was the starting amount of C-14 in the creature when it died? 
    3. The decay rate of radioactive elements is described in terms of half-life.  The half-life of an atom is the amount of time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay.  The half-life of C-14 is 5,730 years.  
    4. Since the half-life of C-14 is known (how fast it decays), the only part left to determine is the starting amount of C-14 in a fossil.  If scientist know the original amount of C-14 in a creature when it died, they can measure the current amount and then calculate how many half-lives have passed.  Since no one was there to measure the amount of C-14 when a creature dies, scientists need to find a method to determine how much C-14 has decayed.  
    5. All living things take in carbon (C-12 and C-14) from eating and breathing.  Therefore, the ratio of C-14 to C-12 in living creatures will be the same in the atmosphere.  This ratio turns out to be about one C-14 atom for every 1 trillion C-12 atoms.  Scientists can use this ratio to help determine the starting amount of C-14.  
    6. When an organism dies, this ratio (1 to 1 trillion) will begin to change.  The amount of C-12 will remain constant, but the amount of C-14 will become less and less.  The smaller the ratio, the longer the organism has been dead.
    7. A critical assumption used in carbon-14 dating has to do with this ratio.  It is assumed that the ratio of C-14 to C-12 in the atmosphere has always been the same as it is today (1 to 1 trillion).  If this assumption is true, then the AMS C-14 dating method is valid up to 80,000 years.  Beyond this number, the instruments scientists use would not be able to detect enough remaining C-14 to be useful in age estimates.  This is critical assumption in the dating process.  If this assumption is not true, then the method will give incorrect dates.  
    8. Dr. WIllard Libby, the founder of of the C-14 dating method, assumed the ratio to be constant.  His reasoning was based on a belief in evolution, which assumes the earth must be billions of years old.  Assumptions in the scientific community are extremely important.  If the starting assumption is false, all the calculations based on that assumption might be correct but still give a wrong conclusion.  
    9. In Dr. Libby's original work, he noted that the atmosphere did not appear to be in equilibrium.  This was a troubling idea for Dr. Libby since he believed the earth was billions of years old and enough time had passed to achieve equilibrium.  Dr. Libby's calculations showed that if the earth started with no C-14 in the atmosphere, it would take up to 30,000 years to build up to a steady state (equilibrium).  
    10. Dr. Libby chose to ignore this discrepancy (nonequilibrium state), and he attributed it to experimental error.  However, the discrepancy has turned out to be very real.  The ratio of C-14/C-12 is not constant.  The Specific Production Rate (SPR) of C-14 is known to be 18.8 atoms per gram of total carbon per minute.  The Specific Decay Rate (SDR) is known to be only 16.1 disintegrations per gram per minute.  What does this mean?  If it takes about 30,000 years to reach equilibrium and C-14 is still out of equilibrium, then maybe the earth is not very old.
    11. Other factors can affect the production of C-14 in the atmosphere.  The earth has a magnetic field around it which helps protect us from harmful radiation from outer space.  This magnetic field is decaying (getting weaker).  The stronger the field around the earth, the fewer the number of cosmic rays that are able to reach the atmosphere.  This would result in a smaller production of C-14 in the atmosphere in the earth's past.  The cause for long term variation of the C-14 level is not known.  The variation is certainly partially the result in a change in the cosmic ray production rate of radiocarbon.  The cosmic-ray flux, and hence the production rate of C-14, is a function not only of the solar activity but also of the magnetic dipole moment of the earth.   Though complex, this history of the earth's magnetic field agrees with Barnes' basic hypothesis, that the field has always freely decayed...The field has always been losing energy despite its variations, so it cannot be more than 10,000 years old.  Earth's magnetic filed is fading.  Today it is about 10 percent weaker than it was when German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss started keeping tabs on it in 1845, scientists say.  If the production rate of C-14 in the atmosphere was less in the past, dates given using the C-14 method would incorrectly assume that more C-14 has decayed out of a specimen than what has actually occurred.  This would result in giving older dates than the true age. 
    12. Genesis Flood - The Flood would have buried large amounts of carbon from living organisms (plant and animal) to form today's fossil fuels (coal, oil, etc).  The amount of fossil fuels indicates there must have been a vastly larger quantity of vegetation in existence prior to the Flood than exists today.  This means that the biosphere just prior to the Flood might have had 500 times more carbon in living organisms than today.  This would further dilute the amount of C-14 and cause the C-14/C-12 ratio to be much smaller than today.  If this were the case, and this C-14 were distributed uniformly throughout the biosphere, and the total amount of biosphere C were, for example 500 times that of today's world, the resulting C-14/C-12 ratio would be 1/500 of today's level.....  When the Flood is taken into account, along with the decay of the magnetic field, it is reasonable to believe that the assumption of equilibrium is a false assumption.  Because of this false assumption, any age estimates using C-14 on organic material that dates from prior to the Flood will give much older dates than the true ages.  Pre-Flood organic materials would be dated at perhaps ten times the true age.
    13. The RATE Group Findings - Back in 1997 an eight-year research group composed of eight scientists (PhDs of Atmospheric Science, Physics, Geophysics, Geologists and Hebraic and Cognate Studies) was started to investigate the age of the earth.  The group was called the RATE group (Radioisotopes and the Age of The Earth).  The objective was to gather data commonly ignored or censored by evolutionary standards of dating.  The scientists reviewed the assumptions and procedures used in estimating the ages of rocks and fossils.  The results of the carbon-14 dating demonstrated serious problems for long geologic ages.Many of the fossilized wood samples that had been dated to be 40 to 350 million years old all yielded significant, detectable levels of carbon-14 that would conventionally equate to only 30,000-45,000 years "ages" for the original trees.  Samples of coal that had been previously dated at millions to hundreds of millions of years old based on standard evolution time estimates, all contained measurable amounts of C-14.  Since the half-life of C-14 is relatively short (5,730 years), there should be no detectable C-14 left after about 100,000 years.  The average C-14 estimated age for all the layers from the time periods samples tested was approximately 50,000 years.  However, using a more realistic pre-Flood C-14/C-12 ratio reduces that age to about 5,000 years.  These results indicate that the entire fossil-bearing geologic column is much less than 100,000 years old - and even much younger.  This confirms the Bible and challenges the evolutionary idea of long geologic ages.  Also the RATE group tested diamonds that were previously estimated by evolutionary scientists to be millions to billions of years old using other radiometric dating methods.  These methods were also based on questionable assumptions.  Diamonds, based on their hardness are extremely resistant to contamination through chemical exchange.    The RATE group found detectable levels of C-14 in these diamonds.  These findings are powerful evidence that coal and diamonds cannot be the millions or billions of years old that evolutionists claim.  Indeed, these RATE findings of detectable C-14 in diamonds has been confirmed independently.  Carbon-14 found in fossils at all layers of the geologic column, in coal and in diamonds, is evidence which confirms the biblical timescale of thousands of years and not billions.  Carbon-14 data is now firmly on the side of the young-earth view of history.  The RATE Project website can be found at: http://www.icr.org/research/rate/ .
    14. Starlight Argument against a Young Earth - For this I reference a website, due to it's long detailed explanation.  The website is connected to this book and can be found at: http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/nab/does-starlight-prove . This information is from the conclusion of this section of the website:
    15. So, we’ve seen that the critics of creation must use a number of assumptions in order to use distant starlight as an argument against a young universe. And many of these assumptions are questionable. Do we know that light has always propagated at today’s speed? Perhaps this is reasonable, but can we be absolutely certain, particularly during Creation Week when God was acting in a supernatural way? Can we be certain that the Bible is using “cosmic universal time,” rather than the more common “cosmic local time” in which light reaches earth instantly?
    16. We know that the rate at which time flows is not rigid. And although secular astronomers are well aware that time is relative, they assume that this effect is (and has always been) negligible, but can we be certain that this is so? And since stars were made during Creation Week when God was supernaturally creating, how do we know for certain that distant starlight has arrived on earth by entirely natural means? Furthermore, when big bang supporters use distant starlight to argue against biblical creation, they are using a self-refuting argument since the big bang has a light travel-time problem of its own. When we consider all of the above, we see that distant starlight has never been a legitimate argument against the biblical timescale of a few thousand years.
    17. As creation scientists research possible solutions to the distant starlight problem, we should also remember the body of evidence that is consistent with the youth of the universe. We see rotating spiral galaxies that cannot last multiple billions of years because they would be twisted-up beyond recognition. We see multitudes of hot blue stars, which even secular astronomers would agree cannot last billions of years.8 In our own solar system we see disintegrating comets and decaying magnetic fields that cannot last billions of years; and there is evidence that other solar systems have these things as well. Of course, such arguments also involve assumptions about the past. That is why, ultimately, the only way to know about the past for certain is to have a reliable historic record written by an eyewitness. That is exactly what we have in the Bible.
  64. >  The Bible makes it clear that death, bloodshed, disease, thorns, and suffering are a consequence of sin.  In Genesis 1:29-30, God gave Adam and Eve and the animals plants to eat (this is reading Genesis at face value, as literal history, as Jesus did in Matthew 19:3-6).  Man was permitted to eat meat only after the Flood (Genesis 9:3).  This makes it obvious that the statements in Genesis 1:29-30 were meant to inform us that man and the animals were vegetarian to start with.  Also, in Genesis 9:2, we are told of a change God apparently made in the way animals react to man.  God warned Adam in Genesis 2:17 that if he ate of the "tree of knowledge of good and evil" he would "die."  In other words, it would be the commencement of a process of physical dying (see Genesis 3:19).  It also clearly involved spiritual death (separation from God).  - From page 99 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  65. God requires the shedding of blood for the remission of sins.  What happened in the Garden of Eden was a picture of what was to come in Jesus Christ, who shed His blood on the Cross as the Lamb of God who took away the sins of the world (John 1:29).  Now if the Garden of Eden were sitting on a fossil record of dead things millions of years old, then blood was shed before sin.  This would destroy the foundation of the Atonement.The Bible s clear: the sin of Adam brought death and suffering into the world.  As Romans 8:19-22 tells us, the whole of creation "groans" because of the effects of the fall of Adam, and the creation will be liberated "from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God (Rom. 8:21).  Also, bear in mind that thorns came into existence after the Curse.  Because there are thorns in the fossil record, it had to be formed after Adam and Eve sinned.    - From page 100 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  66. God provided light (Genesis 1:3) the first three days  before He created the sun on day 4 of creation and the rotating earth created the day and nights.  Revelation 21:23 tells us that one day the sun will not be needed because the glory of God will light the heavenly city.  The sun did not give birth to the earth as evolutionary theories postulate; the sun was God's created tool to rule the day that God had made (Genesis 1:16).    - From page 102 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  67. If God created everything in six days, as the Bible says, then surely this reveals the power and wisdom of God in a profound way - Almighty God did not need eons of time.  However, the billions-of-years scenarios diminish God by suggesting that mere chance could create things or that God needed huge amounts of time to create things - this would be limiting God's power by reducing it to naturalistic explanations.   - From page 104 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  68. Contradictions between the Order of Creation in the Bible and Evolution/Long-Ages - Biblical Account vs. Evolution/Long Age:  - From page 110 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
    Earth before sun and stars vs. Stars and sun before earth
    Earth covered in water initially vs. Earth a molten blob initially
    Oceans first, then dry land vs. Dry land then oceans
    Life first created on land vs. Life started in the oceans
    Plants created before the sun vs. Plants came long after the sun
    Land animals created after birds vs. Land animals existed before birds
    Whales before land animals vs. Land animals before whales.
  69. Long-Age Compromises - Other than the "gap theory" (the belief that there is a gap of indeterminate time between the first two verses of Genesis 1), the major compromise positions that try to harmonize long ages  and/or evolution with Genesis fall into two categories: - From page 110 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
    1. "theistic evolution" wherein God supposedly directed the evolution process of millions of years, or even just set it up and let it run, and 
    2. "progressive creation" where God supposedly intervened in the processes of death and struggle to create millions of species at various times over millions of years.
  70. All long-age compromises reject Noah's Flood as global - it could only be a local event because the fossil layers are accepted as evidence for millions of years.  A global Flood would have destroyed this record and produced another.  Therefore, these positions cannot allow a catastrophic global Flood that would form layers of fossil-bearing rocks over the earth.  This, of course, goes against Scripture, which obviously teaches a global Flood (Genesis 6-9).  Sadly, most theologians years ago simply tried to add this belief to the Bible instead of realizing that these layers were laid down by Noah's Flood. - From page 110 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  71. It does matter what a Christian believes concerning the days of creation in Genesis 1.  Most importantly, all schemes which insert eons of time into, or before, creation undermine the gospel by putting death, bloodshed, disease, thorns, and suffering before sin and the Fall,   - From page 111 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  72. It is really a matter of how one approaches the Bible, in principal.  If we do not allow the language to speak to us in context, but try to make the text fit ideas outside of Scripture, then ultimately the meaning of any word in any part of the Bible depends on man's interpretation, which can change according to whatever outside ideas are in vogue.   - From page 111 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  73. If one allows science (which has wrongly become synonymous with evolution and materialism) to determine our understanding of scripture, then this can lead to a slippery slope of unbelief through the rest of Scripture.  For instance, science would proclaim that a person cannot be raised from the dead.  Does this mean we should interpret the Resurrection of Christ to reflect this?  Sadly, some do just this, saying that the Resurrection simply means that Jesus' teachings live on in His followers.  - From page 111 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  74. God's people need to realize that the Word of God is something very special.  It is not just the words of men.  As Paul said in 1 Thessalonians 2:13, "You received it not as the word of men, but as it is, truly the word of God."  Proverbs 30:5-6 states that "every word of God is pure....Do not add to His words, lest He reprove you and you be found a liar."  The Bible cannot be treated as just some great literary work.  We need to "tremble at His word" (Isaiah 66:2) and not forget:  All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work (2 Timothy 3:16-17).  In the original autographs, every word and letter in the Bible is there because God put it there.  Let us listen to God speaking to us through His Word and not arrogantly think we can tell God what He really means!    - From page 111-112 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  75. Radiometric dating methods also have their faults, as they are a blend of historical and observational science.  Historical science cannot be observed.  Determining the conditions present when the rock was first formed can only be studied through historical science.  Determining how the environment might have affected the rock also falls under historical science.  Neither condition is directly observable.  Since radioisotope dating uses both types of science, we can't directly measure the age of something.  We can us scientific techniques in the present, combined with assumptions about historical events, to estimate age.  Therefore, there are several assumptions that must be made in radioisotope dating.  Three critical assumptions can affect the results of radioisotope dating: 1. The initial conditions of the rock sample are accurately known.  2. The amount of the parent or daughter elements in a sample has not been altered by processes other than radioactive decay.  3. The decay rate (or half-life) of the parent isotope has remained constant since the rock was formed.    - From page 116 of "The New Answers Book 1" by Ken Ham.  
  76. The only one who can re-create us is the One who created us in the first place.  If your watch were out of order, you wouldn’t take it to a blacksmith.  If your car needed overhauling, you wouldn’t go to a machine shop.  Our spiritual problems can be solved only by the God who created us originally. - From page 86 of "Billy Graham in Quotes” by Franklin Graham.